Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17225
Title: Çanakkale İli, Yapıldak Deresi-çardak Beldesi Sahil Şeridinin Yerleşime Uygunluğunun Çevre Jeolojisi Açısından İrdelenmesi
Other Titles: Investigation Of Environmental Geology For Settlement Suitability Of Çanakkale City, Yapildak Stream-çardak Town
Authors: Vardar, Mahir
Eser, Didem
75263
Jeoloji Mühendisliği
Geological Engineering
Keywords: Jeolojik yapı
Kıyı şeridi
Yerleşim alanları
Çanakkale-Yapıldak Deresi-Çardak
Geological structure
Coastal line
Settlement areas
Issue Date: 1998
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Yüksek Lisans Tezi olarak hazırlanan bu çalışmada; Çanakkale, Yapıldak Deresi- Çardak Beldesi sahil şeridinin yerleşime uygunluğunun, çevre jeolojisi açısından irdelemesi yapılmıştır. Arazi gözlemlerine göre inceleme alanı, Miyosen volkanitleri ve genç çökellerden oluşmaktadır. Bu nedenle az ve orta engebeli bir morfoloji sergiler. Alttan üste doğru; andezitik lavlardan oluşan Ezine-Doyran Volkanitleri, çakıltaşı, kumtaşı, kiltaşı, marn ve yer yer gölsel kireçtaşı ardalanmasından oluşan Gazhanedere Formasyonu, bunun üzerine uyumlu olarak gelen yer yer sert kumtaşı yumrulu ve kil arakatkılı masif kumtaşlarmdan oluşan Kirazlı Formasyonu, dereceli geçişli olarak yeralan kiltaşı, kumtaşı, killi-kumlu kireçtaşı ardalanmasıyla başlayıp, kireçtaşı, fosilli ve oolitli kireçtaşı düzeyleri ile son bulan Alçıtepe Formasyonu, paralele yakın bir açısal uyumsuzlukla üzerine çökelen kanal dolgulu, çapraz tabakalı çakıl, kum kil ardalanmalı Bayramiç Formasyonu, yine açısal uyumsuz olarak yeralan, Ostrea banklı, blok, çakıl, kum istifinden oluşan Marmara Formasyonu ve alüvyon ile plaj kumlan yüzeylenmektedir. Arazinin genel kullanım potansiyelinin belirlenmesi amacıyla; inceleme alanı çevre jeolojisi yönünden irdelenerek, yerleşime uygun ve uygun olmayan alanların bölgelemesi yapılmıştır. Bölgeleme için genel yerleşime uygunluk kriterleri gözönüne alınarak; jeolojik yapı, kitle hareketleri, depremsellik, morfoloji gibi jeolojik öğeler başta olmak üzere, meteorolojik veriler, doğal bitki örtüsü, genel toprak yapısı ve tarımsal nitelikli alanlar, arkeolojik ve doğal sit gibi koruma alanları ve ilgili tüm çevresel etmenler tek tek ele alınmış, insan ve doğa dengesini korumayı da amaçlayarak, yeni yapılaşma alanlarının belirlenmesine çalışılmıştır. Bu çalışma, ileride yapılması olası küçük ölçekli ayrıntılı mühendislik incelemelerine temel oluşturacak nitelikte hazırlanmış; çevresel jeolojik etmenlerin irdelenmesinin, yerleşim alanlarının belirlenmesi açısından ilk aşama olduğu gerçeğini bir kez daha ortaya koymayı amaçlamıştır. Yerleşime uygun yeni alanların belirlenmesinde öncelikle arazi gözlemleri, bölgede yapılan eski incelemelerle birlikte derlenmiş, inceleme alanının jeoloji ve mühendislik jeolojisi haritası ile kesitleri oluşturulmuştur. Daha sonra bu harita ile birlikte tüm yerleşim kriterleri için hazırlanan haritalar üst üste çakıştırılarak, çevre jeolojisine göre inceleme alanının değerlendirmesi yapılmıştır. Bu değerlendirme sonucunda, jeolojik açıdan riskli ve çok eğimli alanlar ile tarımsal niteliği, doğal bitki örtüsü, antik ve doğal niteliği korunacak kesimler yerleşim alan sınırlan dışında bırakılarak; insan ve doğa dengesinin korunmasına yönelik olarak, kullanıma uygun bölgeler sınırlandınlmıştır. Bölgelemeler yapılırken; yeni yerleşimlerin, daha önce kurulan yerleşim alanlanna, kıyı şeridine, bölgede doğal rant getiren öğelere olumsuz bir etkisinin olup olmayacağı, nüfus artışına bağlı olarak gelişme alanlannda ileride karşılaşılabilecek sorunlar da gözönünde bulundurulmuştur.
In this study which to prepare The Postgraduate Thesis; according to environmental geology for settlement suitability of Çanakkale City, Yapildak Stream-Çardak Town and surrounding have been investigated in general Investigation area exists on north of Çanakkale City, in the west of Marmara Region. The purpose of this study designates the new settlements areas in investigations area because of necessity is increasing for tourism and vacation place, according to environmental geology. The study is a principal investigation for the next studies of engineering geology in detail. The investigations according to environmental geology provide the well planned new cities and at this study have been purposed to put forth this point for consideration one more time. It is known than city life is going more boring and stressful in our century. Because these reasons, big city citizens are in need of refreshment to bear the big city life. This causes, recreation areas like small villages, small farms and weekend houses which are not far away from these metropolis. Çanakkale and surrounding are increasing the popularity nowadays, because of being for away from these metropolis, natural beauty, too. In the old vacation district on the south of Çanakkale City, density of buildings is too much and nature is damaged for this reason. Today's resting areas have some of the problems which are environmental geology, new vacation places. In this matter, these problems have to solve near future as far as quickly. Therefore correct solution will be thinking global and planning regionally. This study which its flow diagram shown at figure- 1, have been got the following and findings: 1. Investigation area contains Miocene volcanics and young sediments. Due to this reason, it has almost a flat morphology. 2. The investigation area contains the geological units are as follows: 2.a. At the bottom of investigation area is Ezine-Dovran Volcanic Rocks. It consists of andesite and andesitic tuff. Its age is Lower-Middle Miocene. 2.b. The Gazhanedere Formation is the oldest unit in this area. Its relationship with Ezine-Doyran Volcanic Rocks had never seen in the investigation area. This unit Xll INVESTIGATION OF ENVIRONMENTAL GEOLOGY FOR SETTLEMENT SUITABILITY OF ÇANAKKALE CITY, YAPILDAK STREAM-ÇARDAK TOWN u u Prepare and interpretation of maps and sections (1 / 25000) U Computer study U Study of environmental geology fin* settlement suitability of the investigation area u Preparing of knowledge matrix U Preparing of maps U To determine of suitable for settlement area U To determine of precautions JJ Results and suggestions Figure 1 Flow diagram of the thesis. made up of gravelstone, sandstone, claystone, marn and limestone succession. Its age is Lower-Middle Miocene. Xlll 2.c. The Kirazlı Formation is comformably overlaid by The Gazhanedere Formation. The Kirazlı Formation consists of sandstone. The bottom of unit is massif sands which are claystone zones and hard sandstone blocks. The top of unit, sandstone are bedded and claystone zones are dense. The age of unit is Middle-Upper Miocene. 2.d. The Alçıtepe Formation is comformably overlaid by The Kirazlı formation, too. The Alçıtepe Formation is made up of claystone, sandstone, clayey-sandy limestone, oolitic and shally limestone succession from top to the bottom levels. The formation is most widespread in the investigation area. 2.e. The Bayramiç Formation lies semiparallel unconformably over the Alçıtepe Formation. This unit consists of cross bedded sandstone, claystone and gravel stone succession. Its age is Upper Pliocene-Lower Pleistocene. 2.f. A small part of the investigation area is The Marmara Formation. This unit is made up of send and gravel levels. The middle level of unit consists of component bedded Ostrea Bank and top levels of the unit contains ellipsoid stone deposits. Its age is Upper Pleistocene. 2.g. The youngest unit in the investigation area is alluvium which contains clay, silt, sand and gravel 3. Çanakkale and its surroundings are in first degree earthquake hazard area. There are several fault zones inside the Çanakkale country boundaries. Such as Saroz-Gaziköy Fault, Etili Fault, Çan-Biga Fault Zone, Sanköy Fault and Yenice- Gönen Fault. Activities of along these faults are documented by historical earthquakes and instrumental measurements. Many high magnitude earthquakes are recorded in short period of time in the region. 4.2-5 and higher magnitude earthquakes are closely located between Saroz Bay and Southern Dardanel. In the investigation area, thick alluvial sediments covering Umurbey and Lapseki plains, unconsolidated and altered sections of other formations, and sandy-shally litology of the Kirazlı Formation have an effect towards increasing the magnitude of earthquakes. In Çanakkale area the earthquake regulations must followed in all the projects especially in constructing high buildings and superstructures, such as dams, and first degree earthquake parameters must be taken into account. XIV 4. At the beginning of study, we investigated the area according to slope movements are landslide, flows and different units. On the Kirazlı formation we seen the largest movements around Oylukbelenl The reasons of movements clayey levels and high angle levels. Other then this, there are shallow creep movements and active-potential landslides, debris fells on the Alçrtepe Formation. The reasons of this movements are clayey levels and alterations. 5. As the next step, we determined the environmental factors for the suitable places in the investigation area. For this reason, we prepared three different maps. The maps contain agricultural areas, forest, irrigation areas, the other areas of using, principal water produce areas, natural and cultural sources, dominant winds, dangerous high-voltage lines and probable overflowed areas. 6. The geological and engineering geology maps with the three maps are overlaid, that engineering geology map is the first. In order to obtain the suitable places we separated the investigation area into four main groups that we taked note of substructure and superstructure problems in the future. 7. Four different districts have been described in the investigation area based on environmental geological evaluation of the shore-line in turistic aspects. These districts can be list as follows; proper for habitation with pre-caution, habitation after geological engineering studies, improper for habitation. 7.a. Region I Proper areas for habitation are the along the shore-line where bedding are nearly horizontal and morphology as smooth. Such areas which are located to the north and south of the investigation area are close to the planned areas of habitation. These planned areas for habitation are defined as both geologically and environmentally non-problematic. These regions are suitable for settlement without need of any precautions. The places in this group has no stability problem and have soft morphology. 7.b. Region II Umurbey Plain is suitable for settlement if the explained precautions, in this study, are taken. The only restriction in this part of the investigation area is groundwater table where it is close to the surface the priority pre-caution is to drain groundwater to prevent its damage to foundations and buildings. 7.c. Region HI This is the region which shallow deformations are observed. Such areas are between Umurbey Plain and Lapseki where creeps and small scale landslides are XV observed. They very near to the border of critical regions. These regions will be suitable for settlement if detailed geotechnical investigations are made and suitable results are taken. 7.d. Region IV This is the region which waste mass movements like stabilized-active landslides and creeps are seen. These regions are not suitable for settlement. Probably they should be left for vegetatio
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17225
Appears in Collections:Jeoloji Mühendisliği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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