Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17213
Title: Türkiye'de Küçük Ve Orta Boy Sanayi İşletmeleri
Other Titles: Small And Medium-sized Enterprises In Turkey
Authors: Bolak, Mehmet
Erkan, Erdinç
75375
İşletme Mühendisliği
Management Engineering
Keywords: KOBİ
Small and Medium Sized Firms
Issue Date: 1998
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Bu çalışmamda, Türkiye ve Dünya ekonomisinde çok önemli bir yer teşkil eden Küçük ve Orta Boy İşletmelerimizi daha yalandan tanımak, sorunlarını ve ihtiyaçlarını tespit ederek ekonomideki gerçek yerini saptamaya çalıştık. Küçük ve Orta boy işletmelerin ekonomik kalkınmadaki çok önemli yeri, istihdama katkısı, girişimciliğin ve sanayileşmede atılan ilk adım olması vede ekonomik gelişim sürecinde üstlendiği rol nedeniyle bu firmalarımız özel bir yere ve öneme sahiptir.Bu bağlamda, bu şirketlerimizin desteklenmesi ve rekabet gücünün artırılması gereklidir. Bu çalışmamız içerisine Küçük ve Orta boy işletmelerimizin gelişimleri anlatılmış, karşılaştıkları sorunlar ortaya konmuş, bu işletmelerimize destek olan ve hizmet veren kuruluşlar tanıtılmış, bu kuruluşların ne tip yardımlar sağladığı tanıtılmıştır. Bunun yanısıra, Avrupa Birliğinin, küçük ve orta boy işletmelere olan bakış açısı ve Avrupa Birliğinde KOBİ'lere destek olan ve hizmet veren kuruluşlar tanıtılmıştır. Genel olarak bu çalışmanın bölümler bazında içerikleri aşağıdaki gibidir; İlk bölümde, KOBİ'lerin ortaya çıkışıyla ilgili olarak bilgi verilmektedir. İkinci bölümde, genel olarak KOBİ tanımlamaları, KOBİ'lerin sorunları ve temel özellikleri ortaya konmuş, ekonomik ve sosyal katkıları belirtilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde, KOBİ'lerin sorunları ve KOBİ'lerle ilgili olarak yapılan anket değerlendirmeleri ile KOBİ'lere sağlanan çeşitli teşvikler ve devlet yardımları ele alınmıştır. Dördüncü bölümde ise Avrupa Birliğinde KOBİ'lere olan bakış açısı ile yapılan desteklemeler ve devlet yardımları ele alınmıştır. Son kısımda ise konu ile ilgili ortaya konan sonuçlar ve öneriler kısmı yer almaktadır.
When we look at the definition of small and medium-sized enterprises, we see that these institutions are defined in different ways by countries. The reason for this different definitions are more to do with the scale and power of the economic structure of countries. The importance of small and medium-sized enterprises increases in Türkiye as it does in other world countries in terms of either social or economic. Small and medium-sized enterprises play indispensable role in economy. Number of small and medium-sized enterprises are much more than big enterprises. Small and medium- sized enterprises effect directly the social and economic balance of the country. Small and medium-sized enterprises have big amount of contribution in GNP (General Domestic Product) and the income the country gains from its export. Small and medium-sized enterprises are the corner stones of the healthy and developing countries. Regardless the economic crises and other negatives of the economy. The main characteristic of small and medium-sized enterprises can be summarised as shown below ;. In terms of employment, small and medium-sized enterprises are the element of consistency. Small and medium-sized enterprises create jobs and use cheap labour.. Every single small and medium-sized enterprises can be considered as a economic education to the employee and enable them to gain their work experience much more efficient than big scale enterprises.. Small and medium-sized enterprises are very adaptable. They can adapt themselves to any sort of market conditions easily. Consequently, they can keep their condition strength in volatile market.. Small and medium-sized enterprises adjust themselves to fluctuation of market and changes of demands.. Small and medium-sized enterprises use technological innovations much more efficiently. Small and medium-sized enterprises have positive effect in terms of balancing the different regions . Small and medium-sized enterprises decrease the gap between lower and higher incomes. Small and medium-sized enterprises encourage to invest individual savings. Small and medium-sized enterprises encourage entrepreneur to set up new business. Small and medium-sized enterprises gives support to the big scale enterprises. Small and medium-sized enterprises are the element of consistency and the balance of the social system. Considering their important position and mission which they undertake in the country's economy, they should be supported and their competitiveness should be increased. Small and medium-sized enterprises have undertaken important social and economic functions in Türkiye and in the world countries. Unfortunately, the role of small and medium-sized enterprises could not be over emphasised in today's economic and social development of the country. Small and medium-sized enterprises have a lot of problems and difficulties. In this study, their difficulties and problems are considered under the following topics ; Credit and finance Technology Trained manpower Material selection and equipment Changing of economic conditions Bureaucratic restrictions Infrastructure problems Lack of information and how-know Law restrictions Others These kinds of problems decrease the contribution and effectiveness of the small and medium-sized enterprises to the national economy. In order to solve all this problems which small and medium-sized enterprises face, governments should supply any kind of support small and medium-sized enterprises needs. Several kind of institution has been established to solve small and medium-sized enterprises problems and help to increase their effectiveness. There are many public and private institutions, which are concerned with small and medium-sized enterprises with some organisations of small and medium-sized enterprises and some funds in Türkiye. . KOSGEB : KOSGEB is small and medium industry development organisation. It has been established in 1990 with the purpose of upgrading the effectiveness of small and medium-sized enterprises and expanding their role in meeting the social and economic needs of Türkiye. Small and medium industry development organisation also aims to enhance the competitive capacity of small and medium-sized establishments and to ensure industrial integration in conformity with economic development.. MPM: MPM is national productivity centre. It has been established in 1965 with the purpose of improving the productivity of national economy. Its aim is to carry out researches to find out how to increase productivity. Added to this, national productivity centre gives technical information, education and consultancy to small and medium-sized enterprises about productivity.. TOSYÖV : TOS YÖV, gives following services in order to help and support small and medium- sized enterprises ; - Foreign trade, marketing and export information - Investment consultancy - Press consultancy - Financial consultancy - Legal advises - Education - Insurance - Library All this topics information and consultancy can be taken by TOSYÖV.. KOS-DER : KOS-DER, gives support and full information to small and medium-sized enterprises to set up sectorel foreign trade companies. Added to this, this organisations helps small and medium-sized enterprises about fair, exhibition and meeting facilities. They encourage small and medium-sized enterprises to increase their export volume.. HALKBANK : Halkbank provides financial help and consultancy to small and medium-sized enterprises. This organisation gives different kind of credits to small and medium- sized enterprises to provide them financial support. The aim of this credit and financial support is improving small and medium-sized enterprises and help them become more important. . EXIMBANK : Eximbank has been established in 1987 in order to support financial needs of small and medium-sized enterprises. Turk Eximbank gives financial support and credit under following circumstances ; - To increase Türkiye's export volume in the global market - Undertake the political and financial risk - To facilitated their entrance of new markets - To increase their market share in conventional markets Economic data's for some of the countries ; Small and medium-sized enterprises are %98.6 of total enterprises in Türkiye and comparing these high percentages small and medium-sized enterprises has only %8 pie in the total export volume of Türkiye. This percentage should be brought up to the level of European countries that is %30-40. In order to achieve this, a proper support should be given small and medium-sized enterprises to increase their support volume. On the other hand, they should be supported financially by means of credits to solve their financial problems. Turkey's small and medium-sized enterprises have only %26.5 of investment pie. This small rate compering with the other countries is very low. This have reasons due to credit, fluctuation of economic data, non-stable political situation and investors decide will chance to investment under this non-foreseen events. Small and medium-sized enterprises have 98.6% in the total enterprises. This high percentage will take small and medium-sized enterprises very important point. All governmental decide and economic fluctuation will effect this companies so much, that could be get down economic crises. That's why, government must support in each area small and medium-sized enterprises to" improve and develop this companies and countries economy. The production pie of Turkey's small and medium-sized enterprises are not so much comparing with the other above countries. To support increasing the production pie of small and medium-sized enterprises will help to increase more gross national production and income of humans. Turkey's small and medium-sized enterprises export pie is so low at the total export. To increase export pie of small and medium-sized enterprises, the export information, market resources and advertising must be supported by government. With teaching small and medium-sized enterprises, the export will get common and it will take a high percentage of the total export pie. We could see this situation at the table that Turkey's small and medium-sized enterprises have only %3-4 of total credit. If we look at the industrial countries small and medium-sized enterprises, they getting %40-50 of total credit. At his point, the organisations and government should be search about it and should be given to small and medium-sized enterprises the credits under good condition. Under the light of above information, small and medium-sized enterprises which have economic, social and Homo economics importance should be supported in terms of ; - Infra structure - Economic and financial - Administration and technologic
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17213
Appears in Collections:İşletme Mühendisliği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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