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|Title:||İstanbul'da Konut Ekonomik Değerlerinin Mekansal Dağılımı Örneklem Alanı : Kadıköy Yöresi|
|Other Titles:||The Distrubition Of House Economic Values In Istanbul The Sampling Area : Kadiköy District|
Öktensoy, Z. Visal
Şehir ve Bölge Planlama
Urban and Regional Planning
|Keywords:||Konut piyasası; İstanbul-Kadıköy|
Housing market ;İstanbul-Kadıköy
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science and Technology
|Abstract:||Çağımızda kentleşmenin ortaya koyduğu sorunların bir çoğu ekonomik, sosyal, fiziksel altyapı yetersizliklerinden kaynaklanmaktadır. İstanbul'un hızlı şehirleşmesine de bağlı olarak, bu sorunları çözmek amacıyla planlama ve uygulamayı birlikte gerçekleştirmek oldukça güç olmaktadır. İstanbul' da hemen hemen tüm şehirsel değerlerde bu güçlük kendini göstermektedir. Şehirsel değerler olarak sunulan tanımda şehrin içindeki dinamiklerden etkilenen çeşitli olgulardan söz edilmektedir, örneğin İstanbul' da Boğaziçi' nin yıllara dayanan özelliği bir "tarih ve kültürel değer" olarak kabul edilmekte ve korunması için çaba harcanmaktadır. Aynı şekilde, şehirde bulunan konut alanları içindeki konut fiyatları da bir ekonomik değerdir. Bu değeri etkileyen bir çok faktör bulunmaktadır. Yabancı literatürde, konut değerlerinin çeşitli faktörlerden hangi seviyelerde etkilendiği, bu etkinin arazi kullanım ve üst düzey planlama kararlarına nasıl yön vereceği araştırılmıştır. Bu tezin amacı, şehir içinde bölgesel ve şehirsel arazi kullanım kararlarının bir bileşkesi olan konut ekonomik değerlerini etkileyen faktörlerin ele alınarak incelenmesi ve bilhassa şehir merkezine uzaklık etkisinin araştırılmasıdır. Beş bölümden oluşan tezin giriş bölümünde: tezin konusu, amacı kapsamı ve uygulama yöntemi açıklanmıştır. İkinci bölümde: konut değerlerinin belirlenmesinde etkisi olan genel faktörler ele alınmış, dünyada ve ülkemizde yapılan araştırmalardan örnekler verilmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde ise, konut değerlerinin oluşumu genel olarak ülke ve şehir ölçeğinde etkileyen konular ele alınmıştır. Dördüncü bölümde ise, konut değerlerinin oluşumunu ülke ve şehir ölçeğinde genel olarak etkileyen konular ele alınmıştır. Dördüncü bölümde ise, İstanbul' un çok merkezli olarak gelişimi, planlama kararlan ve şehir görüntüsüyle birlikte, konut değerlerine etkisi incelenmiştir. Yine aynı bölümde şehir merkezine uzaklığın konut değerlerine etkisinin bulunabilmesi için SPSS adlı istatistik programı kullanılmıştır. Sonuç ve önerilerin yer aldığı beşinci bölümde ise; programdan çıkan sonuçlar irdelenerek, bir değerlendirme yapılmış ve bazı öneriler geliştirilmiştir.|
The problems presented by urbanization are getting more and more complicated and are increasing at a high rate both in developed and developing countries by twentieth century. It is known that the economic progress in developed countries had been parellel to the industrial development and allocation of resources and production capacity among various industries and service sector was planned and applied with respect to geographical regions. The possibility of applying any kind of planning has almost diminished to a mimmum in developing countries due to the high mobility of population even though the above mentioned concept is the prevaling one in most of the developing countries. The underlying fact with what we call urbanization problems is insufficient implementation for cities with metropolitan areas in Turkey as well. It is the aim of many research studies in the world to make some decisions based on some data today to be able to cope with problems of the future. Many technicians consider the residental areas as the locations where the city lives and breaths. The purpose of this thesis along the lines of this view is to study the factors affecting the house values in residental areas. In this context, there are a lot of factors determining the value of a house as an economic value in residental areas. Generally these factors can be summarized as follows : A) Enviromental Quality Factors, B) Demographical Factors, C) Urban Structural Factors D) Financial Factors, D) Economical Factors. IX There are a lot of research studies considering each one of the these factors as an individual determinant. The house prices are effecting people to own houses and preferance on the subject economically, socially, locationally and naturally playing an important role in the development of a city. In the years following 1950, the drastic increase in the population of Istanbul due to the immigration from rural areas has caused the city to enlarge physically and to change its texture and structure. As a consequence of these changes, the house prices follow a similiar route parellel to such a dynamic change. Since the house prices play an important role in the development of cities, the distrubition of values within the city limits is selected as the subject of this study. A lot of research studies had been done in housing and construction on house values and/or rentals both on national and international levels. In most of these studies, it is searched how these prices or values are established, what kind of balances are reached, by which factors they are affected and what kind of relations exist among the values and factors. The factors written are shown in Table 2.1. TABLE 2.1. General Factors Affecting House Values Enviromental Demographic Urban Financial Economical Quality Fact. Factors Struc. Factors Factors Factors - land&house stock The general purpose of the multi-sector macro economic models which had been developed in I960' s was to forecast the level of invesment in housing. The rapid increase in upward trend of housing investments had been experienced in earlier years in the western world, whereas it has first arised in 1950' s in Turkey and has taken its place among the subjects which are considered seriously. As it is known, the main reason of this phenomenon was demand for housing, urbanization, establishment of new towns and cities and domestic immigration. As the time went by, the point of the focus in these research studies had moved to subjects such as individual ownership, price movements, financial institutions and even to credit markets. In more complicated approaches, some explaning the demand and need for housing and deterrnining the supply to meet it and some stock-flow models were included. The main approach in these subject studies was to assume the stock of houses is equal to the city population and therefore the increase in population must be taken as the basis of the construction of new houses. In early models, they have tried to explain the demand for houses with respect to variables such as real price level of the house, annual cost of financing it and oppurtunity cost of renting and some external variables like demographic characteristics and fixed continious income. Generally, the prices of residental areas were explaned by mono-centric city models. Most of the mono-centric city models are based on a single CBD located in a city. Such models show how the house prices vary from the city center to the residential areas The distance from the city center is considered as the measure of transportation. In some of the studies made to estimate the house prices multi-regression analysis has been used as the procedure. Most of these studies include variables that are influential on micro settlements like visual quality, sound, polution (noise), accesability to industry and CBD since various residental areas have different environmental characteristics, individuals try to choose the most suitable one for themselves. In general, there are theoretically two opposite views when the households making their decisions on their houses and their location. The first view proposes that the main determinants is to nmiirnize the cost of transportation between individual' s house and office. On the other hand, the second view considers such expenses neglible but it emphasizes the role of the costs of acquiring the house as the dominant in decisions of the household. In fact, there are cases both views could be valid. In decisions regarding the location on the house, there are some other factors affecting the decision such as daily shopping facilities, distances to school and parks from home, etc. besides the transportation from home to office. The studies on factors affecting XI the value of houses have stated that the land (plot) and houses become more valuable if the environmental quality is found to be attactive and desirable, whereas the land or house values less if the environmental factor is not attractive and annoying. For example, a source of noise beyond acceptable limits of decibels such as an airport causes the real-estate prices to fall in nearby residences. It is seen that there is considerable differentiation in the choise of houses with respect to the districts that they are located for buyers who belong to different income groups. The low income level groups prefer houses located in areas close to the trade and industrial areas, whereas the higher income level groups make their choises for houses located far from industrial area but close to cultural and historical centers and moreover prefer new satelite towns that are prestigious, luxurious and far from the maddening traffic and crowd of city- center. In some of the studies on factors affecting the house prices, hosehold budget and the savings has been considered as one of the most important factors. This is naturally due to the fact that the household budget level of income cannot meet the prices as a consequence of housing problem. The housing sector as being of the most basic and typical characteristics of Third World Metropols has continiously been affected negatively by demographic pressure, speculative land market, insufficient government administration and improper public sector investments. As a consequence, the phenomenon of informal settlement covering 60-90% of the metropolitan area displays the discrepancies and contradictions of legal system in itself. Such a formation became the common and usual practise in today' s İstanbul rather than exception; which has taken its starts in 1950' s -by a fast but unplanned urbanization mat similiar changes occured in both social and economic structure parallel to rapidly enlarging urban area. Population and number of employed in districs of Istanbul has tremendously increased both by the high birth rate and immigration. Such a dynamic structure Xll naturally attracts smalls scale manufacturers to the neighbouring areas of industrial sites and as a result of such formation population density escalates both in former and new dwellings. On one hand, it is seen that the loss of population reaches its maximum in CBD, while there is an increase observed in 3.rd sector as well as specialization. On the other hand, 2.nd, 3.rd and 4.th degree sub-centers arised within the city boundaries. When such a poly- centered structure emerges, it is obvious that the weakest ones as far as their incomes are corcerned could be found settling at points where it is easy and practical to settle (at cheap pieces of land where there is no technical and social infrastructure, with low house price; plots which are not suitable topographically with less or no legal control) whereas economically strong ones prefer to settle in prestigious centers. It is known that the means of transportation and accessibility is considered as one of the most important factors when deciding on the location of a company. Newly developed sub-centers are located around points where radial and main arthers circling the city are intersected. These higways are already connected to the main ways which lead to airport and international motorways. Such an accessibility has brought many advantages to firms while becoming a center of attraction for labour. Besides these advantages, it constitutes a fairly important factor regarding the cost of transportation and it enables people to acquire cheap land within the periphery of city. The external factors were relatively dominant in the enlargement process of the city of Istanbul compared to the internal factors influencing the so called process. In other words, the drastic change in nation' s economic policies that were started in 1980' s had led to the rapid growth of the export-import oriented companies and the continious immigration from rural areas. As a result of these changes, old center became inefficient and the city gave birth to new sub-centers in turn. As it was pointed out in many studies, Istanbul was caning all of the characteristics of a typical primary city as well as structural ones. The horizental mobility with such a big capacity that has arisen in the country has also forced İstanbul to change and go to the process of metropolitization. Before going into the subject process, Istanbul has shown a development as a mono-centeric city with a CBD which was functioning as the brain for both the city itself and its hinterlands and a place where second and third sector Xlll activities such as social and economic ones and management functions were being accomplished. But together with the year of 1980 and in the following years, the process of metropolitization which its trends were determined in previous stages has presented itself on stage with all of the basic trends in Western metropols. The two basic trends have also emerged in Istanbul Metropolitan Area as well. The trends are given below, 1) İstanbul Metropoliten Area comes out to be the settlement that has the biggest share in the country1 s urbanization. 2) Population increases within the Istanbul Metropoliten Area are usually observed at the extreme boundaries of the area If we list the changes created in physical location due to these trends. We can see these factors as follows; a)Preferences of residental areas are depending on mobility of transportation, income levels and car ownership percentages, b)Ownership of houses related to the hierarchy brought into the picture by becoming polycentric city. It is later observed that, sub-centers had started to emerge as the result of increasing distances between the city-center and the surrounding neighborhood. Hence, Istanbul has acquired a character of a poly-centeric city leaving its mono-centric image aside.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995|
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
|Appears in Collections:||Şehir ve Bölge Planlama Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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