Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17116
Title: Sürdürülebilir Kalkınmayı Sağlamaya Yönelik Planlama Politikaları Ve Su Kaynaklarının Korunması
Other Titles: Planning Policies In Viewing The Sustainable Development Objectives And Protection Of Water Resources
Authors: Ünal, Yücel
Yıldız, Reyhan
55821
Şehir ve Bölge Planlama
Urban and Regional Planning
Keywords: Koruma politikaları
Su kaynakları
Sürdürülebilir kalkınma
Çevre koruma
İstanbul
Protection policies
Water resources
Sustainable development
Environmental protection
Istanbul
Issue Date: 1996
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Ülkemizde, 1960'lı yıllarda başlayan modernleşme, sanayileşme ve kalkınma çabaları ile birlikte, sanayinin özellikle büyük kentlerimizde gelişmesi sonucu, kırsal alanlardan kentsel alanlara öncelikle nüfusu 50.000'in üzerinde, bugün de yaygın olarak nüfusu 1 milyonun üzerinde olan kentlere doğru hızla gelişen bir içgöçten kaynaklanan kentleşme süreci yaşanmaktadır. Bu durum, hızlı nüfus artışına hazırlıksız olan özellikle büyük kentlerimizin, hızlı ve kontrolsüz biçimde büyümesi sonucunu getirmiştir. Ancak, bu büyüme plansız ve altyapısız bölgelerde yasadışı yapılaşmaların yaygınlaşmasıyla gerçekleştiğinden, sağlıklı bir kentleşmeyi değil, kentlerin sahip olduğu tarihsel, kültürel ve doğal değerlerin tüketilmesi sonucunu getirmektedir. Kentlerin plansız ve kontrolsüz olarak gelişmeleri, önceleri kent çevrelerinde yer alan orman ve tarım alanları, su kaynakları gibi doğal kaynaklar üzerinde büyük bir baskı yaratırken, aşın nüfus artışı ve çarpık kentleşme, kentlerin sürdürülebilir gelişmesini tehdit etmektedir. Oysa, yaşamsal önemi olan bu kaynakların korunması ve devamlılığının sağlanması, gelecek kuşaklar için de büyük önem taşımaktadır. Bu nedenle, ülkemizin ve kentlerin sürdürülebilir gelişmesini sağlamak üzere, ülke ve kent ölçeğinde uygulanan planlama politikaları sürdürülebilir kalkınma hedefleri ile uyumlu olarak geliştirilmeli ve etkin şekilde uygulanmalıdır. Korunması gerekli kaynak olarak su kaynakları, temel yaşamsal kaynaklarımızdan birisi olduğu gibi, ülke kalkınmasında da ekonomik kaynak olarak önemli bir role sahiptir. Yaşam kalitesinin yükseltilmesi ve sürdürülebilir bir gelişmeyi başarabilme amaçları için yeterli kalitede suyun, doğal kaynakların dengesini bozmadan korunması ve geliştirilmesi gereklidir. Bu nedenle, su kaynaklarının korunması ve geliştirilmesi, ülkenin genel kalkınma şartlarında, yani yüksek nüfus artışı, hızlı sanayileşme, hızlı kentleşme koşullarında değerlendirilmelidir. Bugün, su kaynaklarının korunmasında uygulanan stratejiler ve mevcut yasal düzenlemeler ile uygulamada başarı sağlanamadığı görülmektedir. Kentlerin hızla ve kontrolsüz büyümesi sonucu, yeni gelişme alanları ve kentsel faaliyetlerin plansız ve yasadışı olarak su havzalarında gelişmesi, su kaynaklarının devamlılığını ciddi şekilde tehlikeye düşürmektedir. Su kaynaklarının korunmasında, havzalardaki kontrolsüz gelişimlerin planlama ile denetim altına alınması ve arazi kullanımının kontrolü ve planlanmasının büyük önemi vardır. Bu amaçla, bu tez ile su toplama havzalarını planlama süreci ve havza planlamasında gözönüne alınması gereken planlama kriterleri ve uygulama stratejileri ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır.
The world population has began to increase in relation to Industry Revolution and developments in agriculture since the middle of the 18th century. Today, nearly six billions of people are living in the world. United Nations estimates indicate that the world population which was 4.8 billions in 1985 will reach 6.1 billions in the year 2000 and 8.2 billions in 2025. Although the number of the people who inhabit in the world increase everyday, the amount of natural resources are limited. Natural resources, such as water resources, forests and soil resources used to meet the population requirements and to enhance life quality in the world. However, as the countries develop demand on these resources grows even bigger. Especially, the population of developing countries increased by one billion in last 1 5 years. Therefore, developing countries are more dependent on these resources than the others and the constrain on the natural resources is more clear in these countries. United Nations population forecasting demonstrates that more than 90% of the world population increase will take place in the developing countries, especially in the big cities of these countries. This proves, that urban problems will be existing mostly in the developing countries. On the contrary, urban managements of these countries can not afford to ensure urban services, like housing, education, health, transportation. Moreover, they have not adequate sources and qualified personnel. As a result, illegal buildings which have primary conditions become extensive, the population increase rapidly and unhealthy environment conditions emerge in these cities. Because of the over population and uncontrolled development, many natural resources is also being used up. On the other hand, increase in the urban population in Turkey is caused by the migration from rural areas to major urban centers with industrialization and development struggles which has intensified since 1950's. In this period, industry institutions which was developing recently have not been organizing in the rural areas, due to the insufficient infrastructure. Thus, industrialization process has achieved in big cities. Because of the over population and rapid urbanization, today's cities have developed rapidly unplanned and in an uncontrolled way. So many natural resources, such as forests, water resources of the cities have been affected by the results of the uncontrolled developments and they are being destroyed. Natural resources are not only the most important living sources, but they also have an unique role as an economic source in the development IX process. For these reasons, natural resources must be protected and improved to enhance quality of life and to achieve a sustainable development. Besides, it is very important to preserve these resources for the future generations. Sustainable development policies based on the management of the environment and the natural resources require different planning approach than the policies that have been carried out at the scale of the country and urban cities, up to now. Because, natural systems are closely linked to each others. In first stage of planning process, it is expected to be determined which natural systems will be affected and then land use decisions are taken. One of the major aims of this thesis is to put forward proposals connected to planning strategies which have been carried out at the scale of the country and urban cities in viewing the sustainable development objectives. It took 200 years for western countries to progress from being an agricultural society to industrial society. This progress has been taking place in Turkey only for the past 30-40 years. However, it has not yet reached to the standards which was intended to, it has met rapidly increasing environmental problems. For this reason, a policy must be determined to establish a specific location of the industry in the country in order to enable our population to become industrialized and to stimulate industry. Research results concerning this subject indicate that industry investments must be made in the cities with a population of between 100.000 -500.000 people and service functions must be improved in metropolitan cities with a population of more than 500.000 people. In case that the industry is controlled and it is determined where the industry is located, it is necessary to give credits to businesses to encourage the industry and investments for public services and communal facilities to the cities with a population of between 100.000-500.000. On the other hand, it is also necessary that these investments must be stimulated with Mass Housing Fund Credits for controlled urbanization. In fact, in location of the industry, it must be taken into consideration the criteria which to protect natural resources and environmental wealth so that sustainable development can be acquired. Thus, industry must be organized especially on the outside of natural areas, such as important agricultural lands, water products production areas, water storage areas, watering canals and plants areas, forests, recreation and tourism areas, historical environment and national parks. Due to the over population and uncontrolled urbanization, our big cities have been living with problems, such as unplanned construction, housing, transportation, incapacity of social and technical infrastructure, like the other developing countries. On the other hand, because of the uncontrolled and rapid growth of the cities, natural resources and historical wealth which are inside and around the city are being destroyed. Today, it is known that solutions of the rapid growth problems of the cities and inter- regional instabilities are connected to regional researches. Regional planning intend to achieve a stable urbanization on the country by directing migration to the nearest center of population that have a potential for development. At the same time, regional planning has an important role in passing from socio economic development plans at the scale of the country to urban development plans which control physical environment. On the other hand, with the regional planning, natural resources can be examined in a planned and controlled way. Although urbanization is a development process itself, the problem is to control this process unless it causes critical problems in life quality. Therefore, it must be urged to improve smaller city centers (the cities with a population of between 100.000-500.000) so that the pressure on the big cities can be reduced. In the urbanization process, new city policy is an effective application tool for development of the new population center on the country. In additioYi, new city aims to acquire stable distribution of industry and population, to reduce the inter-regional instabilities, to prevent over growth of the cities by creating new attraction centers and to protect natural and historical wealth of the cities. In the implementation of the new city policy, it is very important to implement the Mass Housing Credits to these cities. The Mass Housing is described as an effective implementation tool of the new city policy. Consequently, it is clear the necessity to appropriate urbanization process which preserve historical, natural and ecological wealth at the regional and urban scales and all stages of planning in order to acquire sustainable development. In the urbanization stage of today's cities, one of the main public services is to be ensured public transport facilities. In all the cities of the world, especially historical cities, it is accepted that railway systems are the only alternative for public transportation which can protect historical, cultural and natural wealth. So, urban transport must be improved in this regard. Today, due to the uncontrolled growth of the big cities that are metropolitan change process, new development areas of the cities grow in an unplanned way. It is necessary that these unplanned areas must be integrated with the urban system and urban services, social and technical infrastructural facilities must be in comparison with their population in order to enable the cities to develop in a planned and healthy way. The aim is to produce an urban development plan which is completed organization of social and technical infrastructure in whole of city. Eventually, local governments must be allocated technical and social infrastructure areas in new development areas so that they can protect the cities from unplanned developments in the future. In addition, local governments must ensure new housing facilities for low income groupes. Rapid urbanization that have been existing in our country is also an indicator of social change in manners, passing from rural society to urban XI society. In the passing from rural life culture to urban life culture, effective policies must be improved and applied by the local governments. Consequently, the necessity emerges that it must be reorganized generally in two main regards in order to enable our country to acquire sustainable development and environmental development. Firstly, it must be ensured integration between environmental subjects and connected with all economic sectors, such as agriculture, industry, tourism, and government policies. In short, it is necessary to integrate environment policies and development strategies. Secondly, all the environment laws and policies must be examined and reorganized concerning financial and institutional arrangements. As one of the most important natural resources, water resources have an important role in our life as an economic source and as one of the main living resources. For the aims of enhancement of life quality and acquirement of sustainable development, it is necessary that water resources must be protected and improved unless it changes natural ecosystem balances. Therefore, management and improvement of the natural resources must be evaluated in general development conditions of the country, such as high population increase, rapid industrialization, rapid urbanization. In our country, water resources have been protected from pollution in a way of forming prevention zones around lakes. This has been case since 1930's, likely practices of Germany and Italy. Today, two main bye-laws which determine the implementation of the water storage areas, Water Pollution Control Bye-law that is valid on whole of the country and İSKİ Bye- law that is valid on İstanbul water storage areas have accepted forming the prevention zones around lakes. These regulations have defined the construction conditions in the prevention zones that are formed according to distances from water resource. These zones for the lakes are absolute (0- 300 m), short (300-1 000m), middle (1000-2000m) and long prevention zone (2000 m-boarder of water storage area). With the regulations, it is allowed to be involved in these prevention zones, the settlements, industrial, agricultural and cattle-breeding activities on certain conditions. Although our country have had so many legislations, it has not achieved success in practice. Main reason for this is, because of the complexities that surround the forming of the regulations for 70 years. This complexities is seen especially in sharing the authority and responsibilities. On the other hand, success of the legislations in practice is connected with a control in good order. Therefore, it is very important that definition and formation of administrative establishments that will control the legislations. So, it must be revised the regulations as whole connected with water resources management and it must be defined clearly who is authorized with which subject. XII In Istanbul water storage areas, given an example within the scope of this thesis, it is seen that it has not acquired success in practice with the current regulations. Because of the uncontrolled development of the city, in the water collection areas which were around the city at the beginning, illegal and unplanned settlements and industry institutions have become extensive due to the over population. In researches concerning Istanbul drinking water storage areas, it is determined that the population increases in water basins has occured more than average population increase rate of Turkey (2,5%) and Istanbul's population increase rate. Between the year 1985-90 highest population increase rate has taken place, while the rate was 5,3% in Istanbul, it was 19.79 % in drinking water basins. This over population in water basins shows that the population growth in Istanbul has occured in these areas, especially after 1985. But, this growth has been due to extensive illegal constructions which have been created by migration population in the unplanned and sans substructure areas. So, concentrated population and settlements in these areas threaten the protection of the water resources and unplanned growth of these settlements cause critical problems concerning technical and social infrastructure. By the 1970's, there were agricultural settlements that had low population in water storage areas, today a total of 101 settlements are present in these areas. Although it is not allowed any buildings and activities in the absolute and short prevention zones with bye-laws, there are 19 settlements. Whereas, it is necessary to protect natural properties and natural vegetation of the absolute and short prevention zones which are the nearest to water resource. On the other hand, in the middle and long prevention zones, there are 80 settlements and about 90% of total population of the water basins are living in these areas. As it is accepted that a settlement with of population about 2000 as an agricultural settlement, the existing of 72 agricultural settlements is important inside total 101 settlements, there are agricultural activities, low density, so low pollution. But, the most part of the population (80%) is living in the settlements which have urban character and their population over 2000. Although the rate of urban character settlements is 29%, these settlements grow unplanned and in an uncontrolled way, because of the over population. In addition, concentration of urban activities in these areas increase pollution of the water resources. However, these settlements which are new development areas in the metropolitan development process grow in an unplanned way so that technical and social substructure problems appear beside environmental problems, like ground and surface water pollution, air pollution, garbage problem. Today, in the water storage areas that are being inhabited critical problems, the results of population forecasting for 2020 year indicate that total population will reach 1.313.350 with increasing three times, and the agricultural settlements which are majority today in the water basins will be XIII urbanized and their population will increase so many. Consequently, it will be impossible to solve the problems in the future if the unplanned and uncontrolled constructions can not be prevented on the water resources. Consequently, it is seen that the increase of the population and growth of urban functions in the water basins have not been prevented with the current legislations. The growth unplanned, uncontrolled and illegal way of the city in the water storage areas threaten the sustainable development of the city and the country. So, this uncontrolled development can be controlled with planning. With this thesis, it is put forward that water catchment areas will be protected and improved by planning of these areas. In protecting of the water resources, land use control and planning implement urban development to the most appropriate areas and decrease the pollution to the lowest level. Water Basin Master Plan is not only a plan that shows land uses, it is also a synthesis that balance between environmental sensitivities of water basins, dimensions of engineering and design, and the growth requirement of the area. After designing the Master Plan, local governments will be responsible for ensuring the social and technical infrastructure before appearing of the development. In this way, in future cost of preventing the negative effects of development will be decreased. Planning process of water storage areas consist of the stages, as follows: 1. Analysis of natural qualities and their additions to water quality, 2. Definition of restricting factors of development, 3. Analysis of current land uses around the water resources, 4. Improvement of growth models long and short terms and foreseeing the functions, like housing, working, recreation, transportation connected to current trends. 5. Definition of current and foresighted pollution dimensions. 6. Preparation of Land Use Master Plan connected to water quality and the other environment factors. 7. Definition of practice strategies including master plan control, growth management strategies, control of pollution sources, and legislations. It is very important that the implementation and control of the Water Basin Master Plan that will be prepared appropriately above planning process and upper level plans. It is put forward the implementation strategies to achieve success of Water Basin Master Plan, as follows:. After preparing the Master Plan a wholesum effect must be ensured with the preparation of Zoning Plans which are decided on general decisions of area, such as land use, transportation, density, and preparation of implementation development plans which will be base on practice.. In order to enable water basin development plans to acquire success in practice, development plans must be prepared at the same time XIV as land divided upto plots. In this way, it can be ensured that the plots control of the land. Thus, in housing areas around Water Basin Plans the plotting of the land must be done subjected to certain conditions with minimum plot size 5000 m2, TAKS 5%, the height is 6,5 m. and only one building on the same plot. In this way, illegal implementations and unlicensed constructions will be prevented.. During preparations and implementations of Water Basin Plans, declaration and cooperation amongst foundations must be organized with the ones that have authoritization for construction. This is necessary in order to achieve success in practice and entirety in planning.. In water basins in order to develop applicable plans, a law must be passed to decide how and who will make planning.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17116
Appears in Collections:Şehir ve Bölge Planlama Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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