Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17082
Title: Türkiye'de Kullanılmakta Olan Endüstrileşmiş Dış Duvar Bileşenleri Üzerine Bir İnceleme
Other Titles: The Study Of External Wall Components Which Are Being Used In The Turkish Construction Market
Authors: Şener, Hasan
Akbulut, M. Tolga
66875
Proje ve Yapım Yönetimi
Project and Construction Management
Keywords: Dış duvarlar
External walls
Issue Date: 1997
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Tasarımcı, tasarım süreci boyunca, baştan son ana kadar, mekan, kütle ve yüzey üzerinde çalışarak tasarımını sonuçlandırmaya çalışmaktadır. Bu uğraş sırasında, ürününü biçimlendirmeye çalışırken, onu kullanan ve algılayan insanlara yönelik olarak çalışır. Kütlenin ve yüzeyin biçimlenmesi, yüzey malzemelerinin/bileşenlerinin seçimi, mimar ile kullanıcı ve algılayıcılar arasında bir iletim aracı olduğundan, dış cephenin biçimlendirilmesi ve kullanılacak malzemelerin/bileşenlerinin seçiminde, mimarın hassas davranmasına neden olmaktadır. Bu çalışmada, Türkiye'de inşaat sektöründe var olan dış duvar bileşenlerinin seçiminde, tasarımcı için yararlı olabilecek bir yöntem/araç geliştirilmeye çalışılmış, piyasada konu alanındaki durum incelenmiştir. Çalışmanın birinci bölümü konuya giriş niteliği taşımakta olup, kısaca konunun önemi üzerinde durulmaktadır. Çalışmanın ikinci bölümünde, konu ile ilgili temel kavramlar açıklanmakta olup, dış duvarın tanımı, tarihsel süreç içinde dış duvarın gelişimi ve dış duvar tasarım verileri üzerinde durulmuştur. Üçüncü bölümde ise veri kullanıcıları arasındaki iletişimi sağlamak amacıyla piyasada bulunan yapı katalogları ve yapı üretimi ile ilgili bilgilerin sınıflandırılmasına olanak veren ürün bilgi iletişim sistemleri ile ilgili temel kavramlar ve açıklamalar yer almaktadır. Dördüncü bölümde piyasada bulunan dış duvar bileşenlerinin sınıflandırılması, ürünlerle ilgili özelliklerin ortaya konmasında yardımcı ve seçiminde etkili olabilmesi amacıyla geliştirilmiş olan ürün bilgi tablosunun tanıtımı ve açılımı yapılarak, tablolarda yer alan kavramlar tanımlanmaya çalışılmıştır. Bu bölümde ayrıca piyasada yer alan 28 farklı firmanın, dış duvar bileşenleri ile ilgili 49 farklı ürünü hakkındaki bilgiler görsel ürün bilgi tabloları ve yazısal ürün bilgi tabloları halinde ortaya konmuştur. Son bölümde ise çalışma ile ilgili sonuç ve öneriler ortaya konmaya çalışılmıştır.
In the era we are living, continuous development, in the field of science and technologies, effecting our lives. In the area of communication, health, education, construction, transportation, rapid advancement are being registered. New elements are produced to the market every day due to scientific and technological development. Due to these developments, prefabricated components are widely being used in increasing intensity, in the construction sector. Our topic in this work is the industrialized external wall elements employed in the elevation of buildings. The external wall elements used in the elevation of buildings are highly important part of the building external covering in the construction sector. Their physical importance such as ( heat isolation, sound isolation, privacy, security ) and from aesthetic point of view also external wall of buildings are important and effective in presentation of better environment and attractive city sight. During the selection of external wall elements, the planner uses all sorts of information available to reach a better conclusion and to submit acceptable. The planners collects the informations needed by the writing or visual documents which obtained from manufacturing firms or from distributors, from the catalogues present at the market, by participating to the building fairs which are arranged homeland or outland, or from different architectural or construction reviews and finally from their professional environment. Sometimes obtaining informations method is slow, imperfect and far from serving the aim. The informations available at the market do not meet the requirements and that leads the planners to take the wrong decisions. In this thesis, efforts has been made - to obtain well-qualified information which is oriented to the aim - to classify and to compare different external wall elements in the market by making a tableau, in the light of the various criterias. This work of course helps the planners to take right decisions and uses right elements in the right place. In the second part of the thesis, attempt has been made to explain the concepts of industrialization, industrialization criterias, external wall, evaluation of external wall in historical process, external wall design datas etc. which are related by the topic. XIX The concept of industrialization is based upon the idea of producing goods in faster way and in better quality. This led transition from hand made to mechanical production. Industrialization level is related by realization level of these 5 basis following principles.. Mechanization. Rationalization. Standardization. Mass production. Continuation of production and getting advantage of stocks In contemporary world, the changes which was started at about the end of 18th century and which is the important turning point for human beings is named industrial revolution. The revolution started in every field human beings are involved. There were revolution in social relation. There were revolution in technologies and so on. All these led to exploitation in population. After the 2nd world war more houses, more buildings were needed due to the destruction of the war. This intensive demand to buildings and housings made the planners and the construction sector turn towards mass production which could only be realized by industrialization, mechanical work and adopted new construction techniques. The design and the construction of the external wall elements which is one of the important part of external covering has also taken it's share from industrialization movement. Industrialization of external walls brought the idea of wall components with it. Wall components is planned and put into production in separate workshops, brought to the site applied to houses and buildings without any alteration. Reasons of industrialization of external wall components are as follows:. The need to build quickly (high rate of inflation etc.). To put industry and touristic complex into the production in short time.. Minimize the natural effects.. Demand to better and qualitative products. To use the material more economically. To decrease to the productive effort XX . Aesthetic reasons.. To occur storage facility in building site The third part of this study is explaining the basic concepts of various classification systems and catalogues which are existing in the market to supply communications among the building data users. These informations about building components could be obtained from catalogues prepared by producers and distributors of the products. Catalogues are classified in certain systems to help users, to reach to the informations required easily and quickly. In the marked there are different catalogues under different names. Such as YEM catalogues, Sweet's catalogues, RIBA catalogues, Barbour catalogues and many others. Because of the complication of building construction period, and to use informations easily in communication, some improved information systems are.. SfB Systems : It's improved to coordinate relation between information about elements and it's sources.. CI/SfB Systems: After the SfB system being accepted internationally, it developed in England by separating equipments and exterior elements from SfB system.. CBC Systems: Communication, planning, control of costs, cost analyzing, control of planning by the use of computer to get information about building elements.. BSAB Systems: Informations about products, source classification and the activities.. A.PIowden Classification: The researcher believing that the SfB system is not reflecting the information in a correct way. Therefore the researcher assuming under the present day conditions the informations should be classified by the aid of computer and collect of informations and preparation of documents about design, manufacturing, construction by using symbols.. Clasp/BIC System: Clasp development group are specialized in building schools. This group are employing computer in their preparation of measurement and survey and cost analyzing. They have also developing BIC symbol system forming a large base system in their work and communication. The fourth part of studies is built upon classification of External wall components, aiming classification of the products according to their specifications and to effect in selection of the product. Also in this part there 28 different firms which dealing with 49 different external wall components. This information list ( Tableau ) of products has been prepared in the light of information systems, external wall datas, external wall planning, external wall material and their employment specifications. XXI Informations about external wall components producers and distributors in Turkey are put in the written information list, the relative pictures and details are added separately to the visual information list.. Products information in the list are mainly consist 12 topic. External wall systems - Panel walls - Load-bearing walls - Non-load bearing walls - Facing, veneer of the walls - Light panel walls in frame - Heavy Cladding panels - Curtain walls (Stick/panel) and Light cladding panels. The material forming external walls - Concrete basis - Asbestos-cement basis - Natural stone - Artificial stone - Clinker basis - Ceramic basis - Mosaic basis - Glass basis - Timber basis - Laminate - Resin basis - Plastic basis - Metal - Others. The auxiliary materials forming external walls - Bearing - Surface materials applying subsequently - Finishings - Heat insulation material - Assembly accessories - Elements applicable to interior side of the wall. Application - Connection with building - Construction form - Between the floors single/multiple pieces or horizontal/vertical elements - Characteristic of opening transparent part on the surface - Appearance of the jointings - Comers - Application possibility in different altitude buildings - Application possibility to the different building types - Carrying manner (Machine/Person) - Resistant to bad carrying and assembly - Assembly period - Necessity of painting - Service facilities XXII - Equipment necessity - Skilled labor necessity - Storage facility in building site. Characterizations - Dimensions - Special dimensions - Unit weight - Color characteristics - Heat insulation coefficient - Forming methods - Acoustic insulation coefficient - Surface texture - Surface texture possibility on demand - Waterproofing - Resistant to the temperature differential - Resistant to acid effects - Resistant to the wearing - Resistant to the fire - Resistant to the scratch - Resistant to microorganism - Resistant to become dirty. Scientific and economic criterias - Industrial manufacture - Selection from the catalogues - Order from the stock - Meeting the requirement of the customer - Simple and speed assembly. Approval and label. Guaranty conditions. Unit price. Firm's address. Recommendations. Memorandum The fourth part of the study based on the results and the suggestions.. The results of the study which has been made over the 49 different external wall components are as follows:. According to the material forming external wall components, 42% (21 products) of the products are metal, 24% (12 products) are concrete basis and %34 of the products (16 products) are natural stone, artificial stone, timber basis, glass, plastic basis, and the other materials. XXIII . Between the external wall systems, 24% (12 products) of the products are forming light cladding panel systems, 20% (10 products) of the products are using on facing and veneer of the walls, 15% (7 products) are forming curtain walls (stick systems) and 41% (20 products) of the products are forming panel walls, load-bearing walls, non-load bearing walls and heavy cladding panels.. According to the connection of the external wall components, 65% of the products hunging on to the bearing system (point, vertical, horizontal, cross). 35% of the products are using according to the other connection systems.. According to the application basis, 79% (39 products) of the external wall components are slab shape, 15% (7 products) are grid shape and 6% (3 products) are small shape components.. Between the floors, 46% (23 products) of the external wall components applied in the shape of single/multiple pieces, 30% (15 products) applied only in the shape of single pieces, 23% (1 1 products) applied only in the shape of multiple pieces. 65% (32 products) of the external wall components applied in the shape of horizontal/vertical elements, 16% (8 products) applied only horizontal elements and 14% (7 products) applied only vertical elements.. The appearance of the jointing points of the 57% (28 products) external wall components are beds, 43% (21 products) are jointing accessory and corbelled.. Possibility of making transparent opening on the surface of the external wall components is 41% (20 products).. 71 % of the products are carried by labours and 29% of the products need to carry by machines.. There is no adaptation of dimensions between the products.. Some member of Prefabrication Union are not having in their stocks. They are starting production of the elements after they sign the contract.. Almost all production firms are having efficiency TSE certificate, but very little of they are having ISO certificate.. External walls components prices are showing differences according to demands.. The followings are observations and research mainline contacts has been made with the manufacturer of external wall components and their distributors asking their informations for academical works apparently they were not interested therefore they did not show the courtesy of responding. However they responded quickly when approached then professionally.. It has also been noticed that the producers of external wall components and the distributors have not basic knowledge about their products and there are also, difference of opinion about the concepts, in academical level. XXIV Producers and distributors firms catalogues have many knowledge discrepancies like not having knowledge idea about heat isolation coefficient, acoustic isolation coefficient and fire resistance time etc. In some of pamphlets ( specially those of pamphlets prepared in Turkey ), there are only little details about the product but the pictures are in abundancy. But those pamphlets of foreign origin are contains ample informations of the elements. Decreasing to the minimum level, the concept confusion related to the external wall components, only can be possible by cooperation of the manufacturer and the academical environments. The manufacturer firms have to give more importance to their research and development activities related to their products. Because of the deficiency of the common rules between the manufacturer firms, it is not possible to occur agreement between the products.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1997
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1997
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17082
Appears in Collections:Proje ve Yapım Yönetimi Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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