Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17064
Title: Türkiye'de İnşaat Sektöründe Alt Yüklenicilik Sisteminin İşleyişinde Ana Yüklenici Firma Alt Yüklenici Firma
Other Titles: Problems Lived In The Functioning Of Turkish Subcontracting System In Construction Sector Between Main Contracting Firm And Subcontracting Firm In Buliding Sites
Authors: Sey, Yıldız
Özkul, Sezer
55908
Proje ve Yapım Yönetimi
Project and Construction Management
Keywords: İnşaat işletmeleri
İnşaat sektörü
Şantiye işletmeciliği
Construction enterprises
Construction sector
Worksite management
Issue Date: 1996
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Modern toplum düzeninin karakteristikleri olan bağımlılık, karmaşıklık, belirsizlik ve hızlı değişim inşaat sektörü içerisinde yer alan örgütsel yapıların sınırlarını, davranışlarını, işleyişlerini, uyguladıkları yönetim metodlarının ve inşaat projelerinin niteliklerini etkilemektedir. Bu etkiler sonucu, adına alt yüklenici denilen örgütsel birimler ortaya çıkmıştır. Araştırmada ülkemizde inşaat sektöründe alt yüklenicilik sisteminin işleyişinde, ana yüklenici firma alt yüklenici firma ilişkilerinde, şantiye örgüt yapısı içinde yaşanan sorunların türlerinin, nedenlerinin ve etkilerinin belirlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Alt yüklenicilik sisteminin gerçek boyutuyla ortaya konmasının, sistemin aksayan yönlerinin giderilerek, sisteme işlerlik kazandırmada katkıda bulunacağı düşünülmüştür. Araştırma, ülkemizin önde gelen ana yüklenici inşaat firmalarının biri bünyesinde gerçekleştirilmiştir. Firmanın konut yapımına yönelik üç farklı şantiyesinde, farklı fonksiyonel alanlarda görev yapan otuzbeş mimar ve mühendis araştırmaya katılmıştır. Araştırma sonucu ortaya çıkan bu tez beş bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölümde alt yükleniciliğin ortaya çıkışma kısaca değinilmiş, ele alman konunun içeriği anlatılarak amaç belirlenmiştir. îkinci bölümde alt yüklenici kullanımı firma düzeyinde ve proje düzeyinde ele alınmış, alt yüklenicilik sisteminin yapım organizasyonları içerisindeki yerine ve ülkemizde alt yüklenicilik sisteminin işleyişine değinilmiştir. Üçüncü bölüm araştırmanın temel yaklaşımını içermektedir. Bu bölümde, gözlemler ve incelemeler sonucu geliştirilen hipotezler ortaya konmuş, hipotezlerin gerçeklere uygunluğunu sınamak amacıyla hazırlanan soru kağıdı, veri toplama ve model hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. Dördüncü bölüm araştırmanın bulgularını içermektedir. Elde edilen veriler grafik modeller kullanılarak değerlendirilmiştir. Ana yüklenici alt yüklenici ilişkilerinde yaşanan sorunlar, sorunlara etki eden faktörler, sonuçlan ve sorunların şiddeti bu bölümde ortaya konmuştur. Beşinci bölümde, bulgular hipotezler doğrultusunda tartışılmış, elde edilen sonuçlar ve genel olarak çalışmanın sonuçlan ve öneriler açıklanmıştır. Bulgulara dayanılarak araştırmanın sonucu şu şekilde açıklanabilir. Ülkemizde inşaat sektöründe alt yükleniciliğe yönelik belirli bir pazar oluşmuştur. Ana yüklenici firmalar inşaat sektörünün doğası gereği karşılaşılan belirsizlik ve risk faktörlerinin etkilerinden korunmada, maliyetleri azaltmada ve sorumlulukları paylaşmada alt yüklenici kullanımım gerekli görmekte ve dolaylı olarak alt yükleniciliğin değişimine ve gelişimine katkıda bulunmaktadır. Günümüzde alt yüklenicilik sisteminin işleyişi, alt yüklenici firmaların örgüt yapılan, teknik bilgi, beceri ve birikimleri, uyguladıktan yönetim metodları, ana yüklenici firma alt yüklenici firma ilişkilerinde sorunlar yaşanmasına neden olmakta ve ana yüklenici firmanın proje hedeflerine ulaşmasını geciktirici veya engelleyici nitelik göstermektedir.
Characteristics of the modern community are dependence, complexity and quick variation. Effects of these characteristics can be noticed in, uncertainity of potency equilibrium and balance, high risk environment, technological development, increasing competition environment and decrease in resource reserves in contrast to increase in use of resources. Under these effects, organisations within the bulding sector change their limits, attitudes, organisational structure and management practice in order to harmonize with the changing environment. Modern building projects are projects that are in need of using different expert areas as a result of the technical disorders. Building projects show difference than manufacturing projects due to the peculiarity of the product, production and the person or groups participated in production process. This difference in projects can be noticed in project organization structure. Building projects are influenced from surrounding environment conditions, characteristics of the environment are; complexity, variation, uncertainity, risk and disorder. Project organisations set up in order to harmony with these conditions. Varying needs of the community and the environment cause changes in management approach. Nowadays traditional management methods left their place to modern management methods. Subcontracting firms in construction sector have been formed due to the peculiarities pointed out above. Nowadays in construction industry construction process have been build not only by one contracting firm but some subcontractors that are specialised in an area under the management of main contractor. vm Use of subcontracting firms came as a solution of determinig the organisational limits and project characteristics. Financa, investment decisions and activity areas are three main criterions that determine the management and organisation method of the construction firms. Use of subcontracting firms are economical for the main contracting firms due to the labour cost. By using subcontracting firms,main contractors reduce the general, material and labour, equipment, investment and construction costs. Subcontractors share all the responsibilities for the danger of uncertainity and high risks in production with main contractors. Construction sector consists of high uncertainity. Uncertainity seen in claims, getting the work, resorce assurance effect the investment decisions of the firm. Also the projects with different design and construction methods form inefficient capacity danger. Subcontracting is an effective way to resolve this problem. Use of subcontracting firms allow the main contracting firm to enlarge activity areas and to gain elasticity and excitement. Complexity of the construction projects, construction techniques used, size of the project indicates the need to different types and levels of expertees. These needs responded by the use of subcontracting firms. Construction sector is one of the sector that subcontracting used widespread. Particularly nowadays quick development and variability, use of project and construction management, identity variation of subcotracting system improved the strength, variability and effects of the problems in construction sector. Particularly problems came out of the relationship between main and subcontractors demonstrate delaying or preventing characteristics to reach the target of the project. Problems lived in organisational structure of the building site in project planning/process and control. Aims of this research are; to findout the process of subcontracting system, kinds and reasons of problems of using subcontractors and effects to project criterions during project in Turkey. This research has been done in Turkeys one of the leading main construction firm. First part is introduction in which aims and the content of the research explained. Second part is about discussing the problems. Studied concepts at this part are as follows : IX -Use of subcontractors within the firm -Use of subcontractors within the project -Construction organisations during the project. -Subcontracting system during the project Third part discusses the outline of the research. Research process forms of four stages. Determination of the problems lived between subcontracting and main contracting firms through observations and investigations. -Development of hypotheses in direction of the results. -Preperation of the questions to test the suitability of hypotheses. -Testing the confirmation of the hypotheses by inquiry Problems lived between main contracting and subcontracting firms from the results of investigations and observations are as follows: -Organisational structure, professional age, technical konwledge, capability and management strategy of the subcontracting firm. -Management competence and effectiveness of the main contracting firm. Following hypotheses have been developed from observations and investigations. 1st Hypothesis Existing constructive properties of subcontracting firms make it difficult to researc the targeted period for the project, finance and quality performance that are pointed by main contracting firm. As a result of these investigations and observations, working style and technical capacity of subcontracting firms effect the production and the performance reached is not enough for main contractor to reach the target. 2nd Hypothesis To reach to targeted profit subcontracting firm is dependent on the technical capacity, organisational structure and management effecticeness of the main contracting firm. Technical capacity, organisational structure and management methods of the main contracting firm play a great role on completing the work on time by conforming the contract, performance of the quality and finance of the subcontracting firm. To test the straightress of the hypotheses developed through informations and observations inquiries have been made. On preperation of the inquiry questions attention have been paid to management performance of the subcontractors during the project. Inquiries have been answered by 35 engineers and architects workig in bulding sites of different status, functional areas also in connection with subcontracting firms. 4th part consists of the findings of this research. Collected information have been appraised by graphics. Problem lived between main contracting and subcontracting firms professional level of progress and the way main contractors see subcontractors have been pointed out. 5th part consists of arguments and results. Findings have been argued through the hypotheses and suggestions developed through results. The following points were born in mind as results of this research: -A market towards to subcontractors has been developed in construction sector of Turkey. -Organisational structure and the management effectiveness of the main contracting firm effect the use of subcontracting firm. -Problems lived within the organisational structure of the building site altough the advantages of subcontracting firm. These problems are categorised as follows -Activity areas of the subcontracting firm -Evolution of the subcontracting system -Project criterions -Subcontracting firms are not well qualified -Main contracting firms undertake the variation and development of the subcontracting firms indirectly. -Management competence and productivity of the main contracting firm effect the performance of the subcontracting firms. XI Increase in standardization, increase in importance of the assimilation of the responsibilities, establishment of the quality conciousness, increase in finance and time restriction opposite to technological development will make certain that subcontracting firms will reach the required level in near future. This thesis to be of help to alight the subcontracting system in real dimensions, to remove the problems and to obtain functioning of subcontracting firms.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17064
Appears in Collections:Proje ve Yapım Yönetimi Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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