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|Title:||İnşaat Sektöründe İşgücü Özelliklerini Belirlemeye Yönelik Bir Çalışma|
|Other Titles:||A Study Examining Determine The Characteristics Of The Manpower In The Construction Sector|
|Authors:||Özüekren, A. Şule|
Proje ve Yapım Yönetimi
Project and Construction Management
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science and Technology
|Abstract:||Bu çalışmanın amacı, inşaat sektöründe önemli girdilerden biri olan işgücünün yaşama ve çalışma koşulları, kişisel ve ailesel nitelikleri konusundaki belirsizliklere işaret edip, bu belirsizliklere ışık tutmak ve işgücünü üzerinde verimlilik çalışmaları yapılabilmesi için tanımlı hale getirmektir. Bu amaçla işgücü ilgilendiren yasal çerçevenin ne olduğu araştırılmış ve bu yasaların sektörde ne kadar uygulanabildiği tartışılmıştır. Yasal çerçeveye bakıldıktan sonra işgücü ile ilgili olarak nelere ulaşılabileceğini görmek amacı ile resmi makamlar ve mevcut kaynaklardan elde edilebilen veriler ortaya konulmuş ve değerlendirilmiştir. Mevcut bilgilerin ortaya konmasının ardından İstanbul'da sekiz şantiyede top lam 100 inşaat işçisi ile yüzyüze görüşme tekniği ile uygulanan soru formu yoluyla bir alan çalışması yapılmıştır. Bu alan çalışması yolu ile belirsizlikler olduğu iddia edilen ve mevcut veriler vasıtasıyla tanımlama yoluna gidilen işgücü özellikleri sınanarak tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Sonuç olarak; işgücünün, üzerinde verimlilik çalışmaları yapılabilecek bir ko numa gelebilmesi için, işçilerin en temel ihtiyaçlarının karşılanması gerekmektedir. Yasal uygulamalarda daha başarılı olunması, bu konuda etkin bir denetim mekanizma sının kurulması, işçilerin eğitilmesi gerekli olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Tüm bunlardan en önemlisi işçinin toplumda bir yaptırım gücüne sahip olabilmesi için, bilinçlenmesi ve birlik haline gelmesi gerekmektedir.|
Manpower, the portion of the population contributing to the economical acti vity, generally is the total of the workers between forteen and sixty of age that have a stable income. It is noticed that the construction sector, a wide subindustry net, is a leading sector which provides economical and social profits with its wide dimensional emp loyment possibilities. Inspite of its being a leading sector, the construction sector has quite different working conditions in industry. The construction workers are the ones who have the worst working conditions. The reason of this is that the working principles are not legalized especially in the developing countries. In contrast to the developing countries the prices paid in the construction sectors less than the prices paid in the manufacturing sector. However the general working conditions are deter mined with the contracts and unreliable working conditions are rather decreased with inspections. The most significant aspect of the construction work is its being tempo rary and untidy. The worker is always moving from one site to another. In the basic meaning productivity is the ratio of inputs to outputs. Therefor, with manpower which is one of the basical sources in construction facilities, it is possible to gain more outputs than the inputs used. The development during the construction facilities have a possitive progress overall. Thus, in a project where there is excess manpower, overcosts may be taken. Therefore, one of the main inputs that is used in productivity analysis in this sector is manpower. However, it should be analyzed clearly, the social and economical standards of labour their legal rights and sanctions, what are they and how far they are applied. Therefore it is a must to determine the undefined inputs in order to progress in the productivity analysis. For example, the number of the workers that are registered in the Social Insurance Association are indistinct. Could you expect a success in met hods developed in order to increase the productivity, while they are in such conditions that there is no social security or organizational structure and even they find difficulty for providing accomodations, water and heating. The thesis is based on the study that completes the labour to make the data concerning the labour scientific. IX In the introduction, the establishment of the content and the laws concerning this subject are stated. Also the borders of the laws, the goal of the study and the corresponding methods are mentioned. In the second section of the thesis, the construction sector and the labour in this sector is defined roughly. This definition is supported by the concrete confirma tions. Then, the frames of the laws concerning the labour is indicated and also the adaption of these laws to the construction is discussed. It is possible to mention the four law concerning the labour. 1. Labour Laws numbered 1475 2. Social Insurance Laws numbered 506 3. Labour Union Laws numbered 2821 4. Collective Contract, Strike and Lockout Laws numbered 2822 Labour Laws, organizes the relationship between the employee and employer and determines the working conditions. Social Insurance Laws, provides the assistance of social insurance during labour accidents, occupation diseases, motherhood, infirmity, aging and death from these assitances, the wifes or husbands and the children benefit besides the insured. The aim of Collective Contract, Strike and Lockout Laws is to regulate the economical and the social conditions of the employees and employers and to prepare contracts on agreements for labour in order to settle the conflicts. The aim of the Labour Union Law is to protec and to accomplish economical and social rights of the labour in their working environment. The other duty of this law is to regulate the establishment, organization, function and control of the trade unions with related confederations. In the construction sector, the corresponding laws that regulates the relation between employee and employer do not have a succesfull application. Generally, "temporary workers" do not find the necessary rightswhich are present in the labour laws like annual vacation with payment, over working payment, while they are working in building site conditions. The Social Insurance Laws that provides social security to many workers in construction sector can not run properly due to the irregularity of the employers who do not declare their employees officially. In the case of the offically right declaration of the employers, the SSK (Social Insurance Assocation) provides an affirmative function but, if the employee faces with industrial accident or sickness these rights turned out to be a suffering for him physically and morally. As the workers in cnstruction sector are not conscious and educated, they do not have efforts or effect on the function of trade unions. Although there is a trade union in their environment, the consruction workers are not aware of the presence of this trade union. The ones that do not belong to a trade union and consequently do not benefit from the rights like total labour contracts and strike can not have a sanction aganist the employees. In the third section of the thesis, the general characteristic of labour is defined by collecting data from official departments and present sources. Most of the workers in the construction sector are not registrated in Social Insurance Association. This is obviously seen by looking to the proportions of the people working in construction sector to the ones registirated in Social Insurance Association according to the census. The workers in construction sector receive their payments according to their working hours. When we examine the earnings of a construction worker, we can find out that there is a positive proportion between the earnings of those construction wor kers and avarage worker incomes in Turkey. However the workers in construction sector have a different structure than standart workers. That is the lack of guarantee of work for them tomorrow although they have one now, they have their payment daily. There are cost analysis done by labour. The only source that is used in cost estimations in Turkey which is published by the goverment but, those analysis are below the market values and they are exhausted year by year due to the high inflation rates. In construction sector, labour makes up the section that has the poorest economical social conditions and mainly they suffered from the lack of labour security. Thus, the investigations done show that most of the accident happen in construction sectors. When we look to the educational level of workers in construction sector, we can easily see that mostly they have only primary school education. The reason is that working in this sector do not neccessitate a certain education. As a matter of fact, uneducated people find it as a solution for themselves to work in construction sector as a worker. When we analyse the age of distribution of the workers, the result shows that the distribution is not homogenous. However this distribution is concentrated mainly on the young and middle aged workers. The reason is that working in sector requires physical capacity. Although a trade union (Yol- îş) is present in construcyion XI sector, the number of workers that has a facility in one of those trade union, are not much. The ratio of the construction workers is guite high in the group of workers that works in foregein countries. Thus, between 1985 and 1992, the 1 14865 workers in total amount of 387444 workers are only construction workers. The countries that benefits from the labour are Saudia Arabia (75488 workers), Libya (30700 workers), Russia (4421 workers), Germany (1119 workers). When we analyse the distribution of the workers according to their expertness, we notice molder and concrete workers come primarily and these are followed by plasterers. In the fourth section of the thesis, the outputs of a field work done quantitatively on 100 workers at eight different building sites in Istanbul. In this field work done by sampling on 100 people, the distribution of age show us that mostly it is concentratedon middle aged workers and the majority has the primary school education. In the sample, it is observed that mostly the workers learn the rules or flows of the work in its own conditions and generally they begin their working life as a worker in construction sector. In the end of this study, it is ascertained that most of the workers work for a subcontractor. This is because the work group in the construction sector is dynamic. It is observed that most of the workers want to work in this sector in the future. The workers who do not agree with this wish are the ones above elemantary education. Most of workers in the sample live within the construction site. Therefore their work place is also their living area. It is observed that the workers do work within the works hours, though they are not strict about it, and they work seven days in a week provided there is a work to do. Workers do no make increasement in the payment problem, and the employers are not very tough about it. It is observed that workers can not get help like social aid, work boots or raincoat from their employers. The ones who can get this help are the unioned wor kers. Delayment in the materials do not negatively motivate the workers in the sample. Working in a job they do not like, decrease the performans the workers. Another observation is that workers in the sample behave positively towards new materials and technology. It is necessity in order to apply laws in a more efficient way and to provide a healthy supervision mechanism for the workers in the sector to work in social security. Educational occupation courses can be organised for the uneducated workers and the ones that act positive to recent applications. It is necessary for the workers to XII come together and become conscious to better the conditions of the work. Therefore, asking for their rights and getting sanctional power from the employer will be easier. As a consequently, it is easily seen that the conditions of work and living of the construction workers are not ideal. Therefore, expecting better performance from people who have no satisfaction of basic needs, will not be appropriate. It will be better to get a level in the basic needs, and then to look for ways to measure and to increase the performance.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996|
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
|Appears in Collections:||Proje ve Yapım Yönetimi Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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