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|Title:||Yapım Yönetiminde Bilgisayar Destekli Proje Planlama Ve Programlama Alt Sistemi|
|Other Titles:||Computer Based Project Planning And Programming Subsystem In Construction Management|
Yılmaz, F. Aslı
Proje ve Yapım Yönetimi
Project and Construction Management
|Keywords:||Bilgisayar destekli planlama|
Computer aided planning
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science and Technology
|Abstract:||XVIII. yüzyılın ikinci yansında ortaya çıkan "sanayi devrimi"nden bu yana, örgütlerin büyüklükleri artmış ve yapılan karmaşıklaşmıştır. Bütün bu koşullar altında, örgütlerin etkili ve verimli bir biçimde yönetilmeleri giderek güçl esmiştir. Günümüz koşullannda yöneticilerin bu konudaki en büyük yardımcısı yönetim enformasyon sistemleridir. Enformasyon sistemi, bilginin karar verme ve kontrol süreçlerinde kullanılmak üzere toplandığı, işlendiği, depolandığı ve dağıtıldığı bir işlemler bütünü olarak tanımlanabilir Enformasyon sistemlerinin, bilgisayar destekli olması bir zorunluluk değildir: Ancak, "hız"m çok önemli bir kavram olduğu günümüzde, öncelikli amaç çalışanlara daha doğru ve güncel enformasyonu daha hızlı bir biçimde sağlamaktır. Bu derece süratli biçimde ve değişik amaçlara yönelik olarak çok büyük hacimde enformasyonun depolanmasını ve işlenmesini hedefleyen bir sistemin, bilgisayar destekli bir sistem olarak düşünülmesi, tasarlanması ve geliştirilmesi zorunluluğu vardır. İnsan nüfusunun ve üretim faaliyetlerinin hızla arttığı günümüzde, inşaat sektöründe de giderek daha karmaşık ve kapsamlı projelerle karşılaşılmakta ve buna bağlı olarak süre, maliyet ve kalite açısından belirlenen amaçlara ulaşmak güçleşmektedir. Öte yandan çok önemli bir karar aracı olarak kompüterlerin, XX. yüzyılın ikinci yansından sonra çok hızlı bir gelişme göstermesi; tüm alanlarda olduğu gibi, mimarlık ve mühendislik uygulamalarında da yepyeni ufuklar açmıştır. Bu aracın kullanımının yaygınlaşması, çoklu parametrelere göre karar vermeyi gerektiren yapım yönetimi alanının da hızlı bir şekilde gelişimini etkilemiştir. Bir yapım firması, esas olarak üç ayn safhada bir enformasyon sistemine ihtiyaç duymaktadır. Bunlar teklif hazırlığı, projenin süre, maliyet ve kaynaklanmn planlanması ve gerçekleştirme aşamasıdır. Böyle bir sistemin gerek tasarlanırken, gerekse incelenirken kavramsal ve nesnel düzeylerde olmak üzere iki boyutta ele alınması gerekmektedir. BDES ve YES'in bileşenlerinden biri olan Proje Planlama ve Programlama modülü de yine aynı yaklaşımla incelenebilir.|
After the "industrial revolution" which occured in second half of XVIIIth century, the sizes of organizations has increased and their structures have become much more complex. Under all these conditions, efficient and productive management of organizations have become increasingly difficult. The management science (management and organization theories) which bears the characteristic of systematic information accumulation related to management and organizations is the product of XXth century. However these practices has rapidly developed by contributions of various disciplines within a period shorter than one century and deepened by the findings provided by researchs and its scientific character has increasingly become obvious. Organization and Management Information Systems have took their currently used shapes by the merit of System Approach which is one of the "Modern" management thoughts. Organizations have the characteristic of social findings and instruments which make possible to reach to goals that people fail to get in their own and which make possible to succeed the accessible goals in a more efficient and productive way. In the system approach, organization is designed as an open system which receives various inputs from its environment and processes these inputs and transforms them into goods and services and then emits them to its environment to get again inputs. But despite their all these roles and importance organizations play instrument role towards the realization of goals. Therefore their mentioned importance and roles are dependent on their efficient management. Main assistant of managers on this subject is management information systems under current conditions. The evaluation of information as a source for a computerized system is not an old concept. In mid- 1950' s systems which keep records of only daily transactions have been designed. When it came to 1970's, the feasibility of computerized information systems has increased by the development of database processing system and they became rapidly widespread. Another reason for the increasing role of systems in organiztions and their effect on much more people than old is the day-by-day increasing power of information technology, whereas its decreasing cost. VUl The information system can be defined as an integrity of transactions where information is collected, processed, stored and distributed to be used in the decision making and control processes. Information systems are not necessarily required to be computer based. But in today's conditions under which "speed" is a very important concept, the priority goal is to provide more correct and daily information to employees in a more rapid way. Such a system which aims to store and process information in very large volume so rapidly and for various goals should of course be considered, designed and developed as a computer based system. Computer Based Information Systems are designed for different goals and different needs. The systems which meet these different needs are:. Transaction Processing System. Management Information System. Decision Support System. Artificial Intelligence and Expert Systems may be included to this classification. Transaction Processing Systems are the kind of systems which store numerous routin records of companies like payroll or inventory and process them on daily basis. There are three basic ways for arrangement and processing of files in transaction processing systems:. Sequential access file processing. Direct access file processing. Database processing. In sequential access file processing, the records present in files are processed sequentially. The most important differing point of direct access file processing from sequential access is the possibility of access to any record in any file in desired way. Database management system is an interface between practise programs and database where related files are stored altogether. One of most important advantages of the system is the facility that any data requested by user is found and set back by the system. Its another importance lies in the possibility that different functional systems can use same data. Management Information System (MIS) is a computerized information system which processes the data taken from various sources in order to constitute the information required for management decisions. MIS produces past, daily and estimated information in connection to company and its environment. MIS does not substitute to transaction processing system, whereas each MIS contains a data processing system. As the duty of transaction processing system is collection, processing and storing of data, the duty of MIS is the using of data for production of management information. DSS (Decision Support System) is an information system which facilitates the decision making process on the subject of data processing and reports. DSS IX practises are generally used in the solution of problems which are specific to one occasion. The feature which differs DSS from MIS is its support to decision making person by alternatives it provides during all decision making processes. Its another difference is that while DSS can produce solutions to unexpected problems, MIS can produce definite reports within the framework of a definite schedule. Such a flexibility leads to the requirement that the decision maker should directly participate in design of DSS. Expert Systems are computer Practises where human information is stored and processed in order to produce results. Artificial intelligence can be defined as step used by expert systems. What is in general aimed by artifical intelligence is to be able to develop machines with smart behaviours. By differing from DSS which delegates last practise decision to manager despite it produces solution alternatives, expert system selects the best among solutions which it produces for special problems and puts it into practise. Today human population and production activities have increased and increasingly more complex and comprehensive projects are seen in construction sector and therefore to reach to determined goals in terms of time, cost and quality is becoming difficult. On the other hand, the very rapid development of computers as a very important decision tool after the second half of XXth century has opened new horizons in the practises of architecture and engineering as well as all other areas. The spreading of use of this tool has affected the rapid development of construction management area which requires to take decision as per multiple parameters. Construction Management Association of America defines the concept of Construction Management as "the execution of a construction management by applying professional management (methods) from the beginning until the end in order to supervise time, cost and quality". American Project Management Institute has defined the project management as "the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques in order to meet or exceed stakeholder requirements from a project". According to the Construction Management Association of America, the role of management information systems is to provide a regular information inflow to project group members about the progress of works and in relation with estimates about results of works. A construction company needs an information system essentially in three different stages. They are respectively stage of solicitation planning, stage of planning time, cost and resources of project and stage of realization. Such a system should be handled in two dimensions to be conceptual and objective terms during both designing and examination of system. When examined in conceptual viewpoint, the works within the scope of Construction Management were defined in details under four main heading to be; . works to be executed before the commencing of project design,. works to be executed during designing of project,. works to be executed during tendering of project,. works to be executed during realization of project, according to Manual of Standards of Practice published by Construction Management Association of America. American Project Management Institute has handled managerial functions fulfilled within the scope of functional departments under three subheadings to be input, tools and techniques, output and classified in the following way: I. Key Integrative Processes II. Scope Management HI. Quality Management IV. Human Resources (Organization) Management V. Communication Management VI. Risk Management VII. Procurement Management Vm. Time Management DC. Resource Management X. Cost Management Westney categorizes the project management functions which can provide computer support in the following way: Works which take part in the project evaluation stage: Bills and expenditure estimate, planning and programming, resource programming, analysis and programming of multiple projects, economic analysis, risk analysis, bid preparation and analysis, decision making in company scale, collection project data, design analysis and technical analysis, supervision of documents, evaluation of contractor and bid. Works which take part in project realization stage: Cost control, measuring and supervision of progress, analysis and supervision of productivity, decision making in project scale, material management, supervision of human and equipment resources, cost and program estimates, contract management, document supervision, quality supervision, risk management, field supervision, preparation of managerial reports. When information systems are examined in objective viewpoint it is seen that computer support which has become increasingly indispensable in the fulfillment of managerial activities is composed of three basic components. They can be stated as follows:. Hardware. Software. User XI Hardware contains alternative equipment solutions which take part on a chain extending from personal computers to Mainframe. Some points like organizational size, structure, number of managerial levels, geographical distance between head office and production units, number, relation, size and complexity of projects cause the leading of computer system to be established to one of that alternatives relying on scale and stages of managerial activities. However, initial investment costs, maintenance, repair, business costs, software costs, requirement of qualified personnel and development-upgrade costs are also among the factors which should be taken into account while making selection. Software consists of codified procedures determined by using one or several programming language in order to execute the functions which are defined within the conceptual dimension of the system. Personnel is complementary component of objective dimension of the system. It includes members who undertake to fulfill a serial of functions from maintenance and repair of system up to operation and development of it. Although in a system which is composed of single PC, operation, development and up to a point maintenance/repair of components of both hardware and software can be fulfilled by a single person, in larger orgnizations personnel characteristics and responsibilities can be determined in line with a functional labor division. The Project Planning and Programming subsystem which one of components of CBIS and MIS can be handled in two dimensions to be conceptual and objective. When we approach to the words of plan and program which we use in our daily lives in various forms, in view to building construction management, the meanings charged to these words can be stated as follows:. Project planning; has the meaning that actions which constitute project are determined, in other words project is divided to its action components and logical relations, i.e. priority, subsequence and unions are determined and made visual by the help of available technics and stated in this way.. Project programming; has the meaning that periods of actions are added on this prepared plan and again by the help of present technics earliest and latest beginning times and allowable delay limits and critical actions for each action and the integrity of project are determined. Various technics can be used for project planning and programming. Whatever the technique which is used, a continous revision is conditional as per developments that happens during the progress of program and as per new data and experiences. The mentioned technics can be summarized as follows:. Gantt-Charts-Bar Charts. Line of Balance Diagrams. Network Diagrams xu Project Planning and Prgramming module can be examined in three main categories to be:. Data (Input). Transactions (Process). Reports (Output). One of main components of information which is required for project planning and programming is time, resource and cost data related to studied project. These data require to be examined at two levels:. Data at project level. Data at action level Data of project level are unexceptionally only once-at-all defined data which are of essential character for integrity of project and which do not show any change for certain actions at level of actions that constitute project. They can be divided to four basic subcategories as follows:. Data belonging to the project itself,. Data for process,. Data for sources and. Data for cost. Data of action level are of individual character which show change for each action. These data can possibly be categorized as follows:. Data for action itself,. Data for action periods,. Data for action relations,. Data for sources designated to action and. Data for cost of sources designated to action. Main steps of transactions handled within the scope of Project Planning and Programming Module can be indicated as follows:. Schedule Preparing. Schedule Development. Schedule Maintenance. Analysis and Feedback (As-built Schedule). Schedule Preparing: Before the production stage, relations between actions and critical path algorithma of periods arising in direction with decisions of basic resource use are held subject to operation directed towards calculation of beginning-ending time and allowable delay values for actions. Schedule Development: Again before the production stage, if results for time, resources and cost obtained in conclusion of schedule preparing are not concordant Xlll to goals of project and company or in case that there are resource restrictions, this includes studies conducted in order to determine their effect on time calculations. Schedule Maintenance: This includes to transmit data for progress of production operations commenced, continued and ended in conformity with prepared schedule and program during production opeations and to determine deviations from aimed schedule and to make revisions directed towards correction of deviations. Analysis and Feedback: After completion of production, development of process, resource and cost values of project are recorded similar as-built drawings and various analysis are carried out relying on these values and some databases are constituted for time, resource use, performances and costs. Manual of Standards of Practice prepared by Construction Management Association of America (CMAA) defines management information required for Project Management in dependance to project stages and contents of necessary reports. Mentioned reports are classified under five main headings:. Reports before design. Reports of design stage - Program follow-up-maintenance report - Brief report for project cost - Report for change request - Projection report of cash flow. Reports of tendering and delivery stage - Program follow-up-maintenance report - Brief report for project cost - Projection report of cash flow - Report of construction program - Progress payment reports. Reports of construction stage - Program follow-up-maintenance report - Brief report for project cost - Projection report of cash flow - Report of construction program - Progress payment reports - Reports for change request - Project summary including exceptions. Reports after construction - Completion reports Basic components of Project Planning and Programming module, namely time, source and cost management submodules show differences in regard to goals, users, types, contents and formats of their reports. However contents of all reports should be detailed at operation level, but brief at tactical and strategical levels. Written texts and numerical diagrams should be used at low levels in scientific viewpoint, but graphical statement tools should be benefited from towards upper levels. XIV When the system is examined in objective viewpoint, three basic components can be mentioned from. The subjects which should be taken into account during selection of hardware that may be necessary in the establishment of a computer based information system were specified before. Beyond this, selection of computer system is function of software which fulfills functions most appropriate to goal. Functions owned by software packages used on the purpose of project planning and programming may be divided to two category as "Basic functions" and "Auxiliary functions". Basic functions consist of kinds of transactions which are carried out by software in relation with direct project planning and programming: Network Scheduling Source Levelling etc. Auxiliary functions have arised in result of addition of some transactions made by operation systems or auxiliary programs to project management software: Back-up of project files, restoring of back-up files to the system etc. While making definition of user mentioned as another main component of computer support in the field of project planning and programming, it will be more appropriate to mention about a serial of users instead of single user. Operator who uses program against computer, should know how to organize data in order to obtain all outputs and capabilities of program in details. Second person who must be within the scope of user definition is planning expert. Planning expert is in the position to know theorical dimension of managerial functions, what are the data necessary to reach to correct results and how to obtain them and to provide continuity of system. Moreover he/she should know the possibilities provided by computer support and should benefit from them at best. Third user is top level manager or in other words decision maker. He/she also should know what kind of reports does he/she require to make correct decision and should construe the outputs produced by used software in correct way and if deems it necessary, he/she should request some other outputs other than ones presented to him/her. Integrated system solutions may be obtained by integrating equipment, program and users having above mentioned different abilities. In order to do this before all the subjects like interrelations of participants, their parts in process and organization, content and character of data and information flow between them should be clearly defined.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996|
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
|Appears in Collections:||Proje ve Yapım Yönetimi Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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