Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17035
Title: Peyzaj İle Mimarlık-kentsel Tasarım İlişkileri Ve Mimari Tasarıma Etkileri
Other Titles: The Interrelations Of Architecture And Urban Design With Landscape And Their Effects On Architectural Design
Authors: Şener, Hasan
Yıldız, Dilek
55823
Peyzaj Mimarlığı
Lanscape Architecture
Keywords: Kentsel tasarım
Mimari tasarım
Peyzaj planlama
Urban design
Architectural design
Landscape planning
Issue Date: 1996
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Yaşadığımız fiziksel çevreyi biçimlendiren üç temel tasarım alanı olan "peyzaj mimarlığı" ile "mimarlık" ve "kentsel tasarım" disiplinleri arasındaki ilişkileri ve bu ilişkilerin mimari tasarıma etkilerini konu alan bu tez çalışması beş bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölümde, konuya genel bir giriş yapılarak, konunun önemi ve ele alınış sebepleri açıklanmış, ve sonra tezin problem alanı tanımlanarak, belirlenen bu problemin çözümü kapsamında çalışmanın amacı ortaya konulmuştur. İkinci bölümde, peyzaj ile mimarlık-kentsel tasarım ilişkilerinin kavramsal/ tanımsal düzeyde gelişimi açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. Bunun için öncelikle, peyzaj olgusu, peyzaj mimarlığı ve peyzaj tasarımı ile kentsel tasarım ayrı ayrı tanımlanmış, kavramsal düzeyde çeşitli boyutlarıyla irdelenmiş, kentsel tasarım kapsamında kentsel mekan tasarım ilkeleri de ele alınmıştır. Daha sonra, peyzaj ile mimarlık ve peyzaj ile kentsel tasarım ilişkileri ikili gruplar halinde, örneklerle de desteklenerek kavramsal düzeyde açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. Ayrıca, peyzaj ile mimarlık-kentsel tasarım ilişkilerinin tarihsel süreç içinde gelişimi örneklerle sunulmuştur. Üçüncü bölümde, günümüzde peyzaj ile mimarlık-kentsel tasarım ilişkileri açısından mimari tasarıma yön veren bazı ortak ilke ve kavramlar saptanmıştır. Bu kapsamda öncelikle, peyzaj ile mimarlık ilişkilerine bağlı olarak, 'binaların peyzaj değeri' kavramı, dış ve iç mekanlardaki peyzaj elemanları ve tasarımını örneklerle analiz ederek, doğal peyzaj-bina ilişkisini irdeleyerek ve peyzaj tasarımının fiziksel çevrenin oluşumunda insan gereksinmeleri açısından rolünü değerlendirerek açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. Daha sonra, mimarinin kentle ilişkisini ortaya koyan 'kentsel mekana katkı' ilkesi, önceki bölümde açıklanan kentsel mekan tasarım ilkelerine ve kentsel mimarlık yaklaşımına bağlı olarak açıklanmıştır. Son olarak, bu tasarım alanlarının eğitim kurumlarına yansıyan ilişkileri değerlendirilmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde, önceki bölümde saptanan iki temel ilke ve kavram çerçevesinde, mimari ürünü peyzaj ile mimarlık-kentsel tasarım ilişkileri açısından değerlendirmeye yönelik kriterler ortaya konulmuştur. Bundan sonra uygulama kapsamında, bu kriterlere göre günümüz mimarisinden üç örnek değerlendirilerek, bu kriterlerin hem işlerlikleri sınanmış, hem de günümüz mimarisinin oluşumundaki etkileri araştırılmıştır. Beşinci bölümde ise, tez kapsamında yapılan tüm araştırma, analiz ve tespitlerden elde edilen sonuçlar ortaya konulmuş ve bu sonuçlara dayanılarak bazı öneriler sunulmuştur. Anahtar Sözcükler: Peyzaj, peyzaj tasarımı, mimarlık, kentsel tasarım, kentsel mekan. XI 15. Providing the continuity of urban fabric, is to connect the form of building to the urban pattern of solids and voids; besides obtaining urban spaces which do not contradict to this pattern. 16. Alignment, refers to a respect through being on the same line with the edges or boundaries of existing buildings which create some 'reference lines' in design.. Since an interactive relation where landscape effects building and building effects landscape, exists betweeen architecture and landscape, they are indistinguishable. In other words, there are true continuum, inevitable interdependence and compatibility between landscape and architecture.. Landscape is also to be an integral with the urban fabric. Hard landscape, urban equipments, pavings, plants, greenery are the landscape elements in urban scale. It means that citycsape and lanscape are linked. Therefore, the field of urban design has a broad coverage which includes the landscape design too. In the third chapter, the guiding principle and concepts for architectural design with respect to the relations of architecture and urban design with landscape are introduced. These are:. The concept of buildings' landscape value,. The principle of contribution to the urban space. Firstly, the concept of building's landscape value has been tried to explain by analyzing landscape elements and design both in exterior and interior spaces, by examining the relation between building and natural landscape, and the approach of 'green architecture'. Besides, the role of landscape design in the formation of built environment has been reviewied according to human needs. After that, the principle of contribution to the urban space has been examined both depending upon urban design principles and the approach of 'urban architecture'. Finally, design field relations which are instructed at education institutions have been evaluated. The reached conclusions of this chapter can be stated as follows:. The concept of buildings' landscape value was examined both in architectural and urban scale. In architectural scale, it is comprised by the interaction of all natural and manmade landscape elements and design with architecture which enhance the visual, functional and sensible values of building. The landscape value of building in urban scale is formed by building's visual values such as form, texture and colour which effect urban landscape character. Because, individual buildings themselves may play a very great role in the visual qualities of the total urban landscape. In the visual values of urban landscape, 'form' quality is the most effective. For example, building's roof finishings, contour or profile lines can be effective at establishment of urban landscape if these qualities are unique and the building is located so as to readily seen in silhoutte. XV ÖZET Yaşadığımız fiziksel çevreyi biçimlendiren üç temel tasarım alanı olan "peyzaj mimarlığı" ile "mimarlık" ve "kentsel tasarım" disiplinleri arasındaki ilişkileri ve bu ilişkilerin mimari tasarıma etkilerini konu alan bu tez çalışması beş bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölümde, konuya genel bir giriş yapılarak, konunun önemi ve ele alınış sebepleri açıklanmış, ve sonra tezin problem alanı tanımlanarak, belirlenen bu problemin çözümü kapsamında çalışmanın amacı ortaya konulmuştur. İkinci bölümde, peyzaj ile mimarlık-kentsel tasarım ilişkilerinin kavramsal/ tanımsal düzeyde gelişimi açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. Bunun için öncelikle, peyzaj olgusu, peyzaj mimarlığı ve peyzaj tasarımı ile kentsel tasarım ayrı ayrı tanımlanmış, kavramsal düzeyde çeşitli boyutlarıyla irdelenmiş, kentsel tasarım kapsamında kentsel mekan tasarım ilkeleri de ele alınmıştır. Daha sonra, peyzaj ile mimarlık ve peyzaj ile kentsel tasarım ilişkileri ikili gruplar halinde, örneklerle de desteklenerek kavramsal düzeyde açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. Ayrıca, peyzaj ile mimarlık-kentsel tasarım ilişkilerinin tarihsel süreç içinde gelişimi örneklerle sunulmuştur. Üçüncü bölümde, günümüzde peyzaj ile mimarlık-kentsel tasarım ilişkileri açısından mimari tasarıma yön veren bazı ortak ilke ve kavramlar saptanmıştır. Bu kapsamda öncelikle, peyzaj ile mimarlık ilişkilerine bağlı olarak, 'binaların peyzaj değeri' kavramı, dış ve iç mekanlardaki peyzaj elemanları ve tasarımını örneklerle analiz ederek, doğal peyzaj-bina ilişkisini irdeleyerek ve peyzaj tasarımının fiziksel çevrenin oluşumunda insan gereksinmeleri açısından rolünü değerlendirerek açıklanmaya çalışılmıştır. Daha sonra, mimarinin kentle ilişkisini ortaya koyan 'kentsel mekana katkı' ilkesi, önceki bölümde açıklanan kentsel mekan tasarım ilkelerine ve kentsel mimarlık yaklaşımına bağlı olarak açıklanmıştır. Son olarak, bu tasarım alanlarının eğitim kurumlarına yansıyan ilişkileri değerlendirilmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde, önceki bölümde saptanan iki temel ilke ve kavram çerçevesinde, mimari ürünü peyzaj ile mimarlık-kentsel tasarım ilişkileri açısından değerlendirmeye yönelik kriterler ortaya konulmuştur. Bundan sonra uygulama kapsamında, bu kriterlere göre günümüz mimarisinden üç örnek değerlendirilerek, bu kriterlerin hem işlerlikleri sınanmış, hem de günümüz mimarisinin oluşumundaki etkileri araştırılmıştır. Beşinci bölümde ise, tez kapsamında yapılan tüm araştırma, analiz ve tespitlerden elde edilen sonuçlar ortaya konulmuş ve bu sonuçlara dayanılarak bazı öneriler sunulmuştur. Anahtar Sözcükler: Peyzaj, peyzaj tasarımı, mimarlık, kentsel tasarım, kentsel mekan. XI 15. Providing the continuity of urban fabric, is to connect the form of building to the urban pattern of solids and voids; besides obtaining urban spaces which do not contradict to this pattern. 16. Alignment, refers to a respect through being on the same line with the edges or boundaries of existing buildings which create some 'reference lines' in design.. Since an interactive relation where landscape effects building and building effects landscape, exists betweeen architecture and landscape, they are indistinguishable. In other words, there are true continuum, inevitable interdependence and compatibility between landscape and architecture.. Landscape is also to be an integral with the urban fabric. Hard landscape, urban equipments, pavings, plants, greenery are the landscape elements in urban scale. It means that citycsape and lanscape are linked. Therefore, the field of urban design has a broad coverage which includes the landscape design too. In the third chapter, the guiding principle and concepts for architectural design with respect to the relations of architecture and urban design with landscape are introduced. These are:. The concept of buildings' landscape value,. The principle of contribution to the urban space. Firstly, the concept of building's landscape value has been tried to explain by analyzing landscape elements and design both in exterior and interior spaces, by examining the relation between building and natural landscape, and the approach of 'green architecture'. Besides, the role of landscape design in the formation of built environment has been reviewied according to human needs. After that, the principle of contribution to the urban space has been examined both depending upon urban design principles and the approach of 'urban architecture'. Finally, design field relations which are instructed at education institutions have been evaluated. The reached conclusions of this chapter can be stated as follows:. The concept of buildings' landscape value was examined both in architectural and urban scale. In architectural scale, it is comprised by the interaction of all natural and manmade landscape elements and design with architecture which enhance the visual, functional and sensible values of building. The landscape value of building in urban scale is formed by building's visual values such as form, texture and colour which effect urban landscape character. Because, individual buildings themselves may play a very great role in the visual qualities of the total urban landscape. In the visual values of urban landscape, 'form' quality is the most effective. For example, building's roof finishings, contour or profile lines can be effective at establishment of urban landscape if these qualities are unique and the building is located so as to readily seen in silhoutte. XV . Landscape design in exterior spaces came into a being as a complement to buildings, so it can easily be experinced as an extension of architecture.. Today, landscape in interior spaces, that is the indoor landscape design, has gained importance as an element enriching the atmosphere of interior spaces. It has been practiced in winter gardens or conservatories of houses, atriums of hotels and office buildings.. In siting isolated buildings, the interplay between building and natural landscape sets up a total visual system through relations of harmony or contrast.. 'Green architecture' is an approach searching for solutions to the ecological problems caused by a disturbed natural balance. It is also useful for creating an architecture in harmony with landscape, that can be called an architectural lanscape.. Landscape has an effective role in the formation of built environment as it should be reshaped considering functional, social, psychological and aesthetic. According to this finding, landscape design and its elements satisfy the following needs:. It is an important tool for providing connection between architecture and nature. In other words, it mediates between natural and architectonic.. It helps creating an enclosure in order to define space.. It increases the use value of the spaces, by defining main functions and sub-functions and also arranging their relations in the outdoor environment.. Landscaping can be effective for giving directions and visual perspec tives.. It enhances the visual qualities of the environment.. It also brings human scale to the outdoor environment.. It is effective for providing acoustic control, climatic and ecological balance in the built environment.. Individual building as a fragment of urban structure, must have a responsibility to the public. Thus the primary duty of architecture is not only construction of private sphere, but also the total existing environment. In this respect, the principle of contribution to the urban space is all kinds of architectural formations which put out individual building's duty to the city taking into consideration the benefit of the public sphere whether the city or the urban man. According to this, each of the urban design principles which were explained in the previous chapter, contributes to the urban space; but this principle covers some approaches in architectural scale too.. Architectural activity is to be seen as something modifiying a totality. So designing buildings as self-sufficient objects causes them to be no good in urban setting. According to this, the architectural design, as an urban artifact, must be formed by the datums which comes from the urban setting. xvi In this respect, the urban architecture can be considered as an approach to design problems whose intension is to re-establish relationships between architecture and the city. It also deals with the urban public realm which concerns everyone. So its design generator is the urban context. From this point of view, even a single building, if it has some contributions to the urban public realm, can be a subject of urban architcture.. The present educational situation of landscape and urban design in our country hardly have a relation with architecture. On the contrary, the architectural education of many developed countries support a strict relation of architecture and urban design with landscape. In the fourth chapter, evaluation criteria have been listed according to the reached conclusions in the previous chapters. Then, they have been searched on three architectural design from 1 970's onwards. These criteria were grouped in following headlines: Figure 1. The criteria for evaluating the relations of architecture and urban design with landscape. With this application, it has been observed that these principle and concepts were used in these examples with different interpretations. Thus, it was proved that these principle and concepts have validity and effects for today's architectural formation. In the fifth chapter, the conclusions and some suggestions were discussed. Firstly, it has been stated that since landscape, architecture and urban design gain meaning and existence in depending upon each other, this trilogy must be evaluated in a wholeness. Besides, it has been proposed that these two main concept and principle, and the criterias which were formed in this framework, can guide the architect in the design activity. Thus, they can be usefull for providing a more conscious and analytical base for the architectural design. The other XVll suggestion is that contemporary architectural education may have a mixed formation which comes from landscape and urban design rather than merely architectural information. Last but not least, it has been emphasized that architecture must have a unified vision starting out from landscape and urban considerations. Creating architectural landscapes, designing lanscape-buildings in urban context and living with architecture as if it were a landscape; indeed, contemporary architecture has everything to offer these notions. Keywords: Landscape, landscape design, architecture, urban design, urban space.
15. Providing the continuity of urban fabric, is to connect the form of building to the urban pattern of solids and voids; besides obtaining urban spaces which do not contradict to this pattern. 16. Alignment, refers to a respect through being on the same line with the edges or boundaries of existing buildings which create some 'reference lines' in design.. Since an interactive relation where landscape effects building and building effects landscape, exists betweeen architecture and landscape, they are indistinguishable. In other words, there are true continuum, inevitable interdependence and compatibility between landscape and architecture.. Landscape is also to be an integral with the urban fabric. Hard landscape, urban equipments, pavings, plants, greenery are the landscape elements in urban scale. It means that citycsape and lanscape are linked. Therefore, the field of urban design has a broad coverage which includes the landscape design too. In the third chapter, the guiding principle and concepts for architectural design with respect to the relations of architecture and urban design with landscape are introduced. These are:. The concept of buildings' landscape value,. The principle of contribution to the urban space. Firstly, the concept of building's landscape value has been tried to explain by analyzing landscape elements and design both in exterior and interior spaces, by examining the relation between building and natural landscape, and the approach of 'green architecture'. Besides, the role of landscape design in the formation of built environment has been reviewied according to human needs. After that, the principle of contribution to the urban space has been examined both depending upon urban design principles and the approach of 'urban architecture'. Finally, design field relations which are instructed at education institutions have been evaluated. The reached conclusions of this chapter can be stated as follows:. The concept of buildings' landscape value was examined both in architectural and urban scale. In architectural scale, it is comprised by the interaction of all natural and manmade landscape elements and design with architecture which enhance the visual, functional and sensible values of building. The landscape value of building in urban scale is formed by building's visual values such as form, texture and colour which effect urban landscape character. Because, individual buildings themselves may play a very great role in the visual qualities of the total urban landscape. In the visual values of urban landscape, 'form' quality is the most effective. For example, building's roof finishings, contour or profile lines can be effective at establishment of urban landscape if these qualities are unique and the building is located so as to readily seen in silhoutte.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17035
Appears in Collections:Peyzaj Mimarlığı Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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