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|Title:||İstanbul'da Yabancı Bir Mimar William James Smith|
|Other Titles:||A Foreign Architect In Istanbul: William James Smith|
History of Architecture
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science and Technology
|Abstract:||III. Ahmet dönemi ile birlikte başlayan batılılaşma çabaları, Abdülmecid döneminde büyük bir hız kazanmış, bu durum kendini en temelli biçimde Tanzimat Fermanı'nın ilanı ile göstermiştir. Tanzimat Fermanı ile birlikte haklar, eğitim ve askerlik gibi alanlarda birtakım köklü yenilikler olduğu gibi güzel sanatlar alanında da bu yeniliklerin takip edilmesi sözkonusu olmuş, Osmanlı İmparatorluğu hem sosyal hem de siyasi alanda Batı'yı örnek almaya çalışmıştır. Tanzimat dönemindeki batılılaşma politikası, mimariyi de etkisi altına almış, bu dönem Avrupası'ndaki eklektisizm İstanbul'da yavaş yavaş etkin olmaya başlayan yabancı mimarlar tarafından Osmanlı mimarisine adapte edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Abdülmecid döneminde İstanbul'da bulunan William James Smith, Batı eklektisizmini Osmanlı mimarisine adapte etmeye çalışmıştır. İngiliz Çevre Bakanlığı mimarlarından olan Smith, 1831 yangınında yanan İngiliz Elçiliği binasını yeniden inşaa etmek üzere 1841 yılında İstanbul'a gönderilmiştir. 1841-1853 yılları arasında İstanbul'da bulunan Smith, bu yıllar arasında İmparatorluk için birçok yapı inşaa etmiş, resmi yapılar dışında sivil nitelikli yapılara da imzasını atmıştır. Smith, Naum Tiyatrosu ve Galata Sarayı'nın yenilenmesi projelerinde de görev almıştır. Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi'nde yapılan çalışmalar sonucunda elde edilen bir belgeye göre Smith'in yanına teori ve uygulama alanında yetiştirilmek üzere Osmanlı Müslüman mimar halifelerinin genç ve yeteneklilerinden birkaç kişinin de verildiği tespit edilmiştir. Smith'in inşaa ettiği yapılarda eklektik anlayışın yanısıra Neoklasik bir tavrın daha ağır bastığı dikkati çekmektedir. Kaynağını Antik Yunan ve Roma'dan alan bu tavrın Smith'in başkentte gerçekleştirdiği yapılara nasıl yansıdığını incelemek bu çalışmanın başlıca amacıdır. İstanbul'da görev alan yabancı mimarların oluşturduğu yelpazede hatırı sayılır bir yere sahip olan Smith'in İmparatorluk için yaptığı çalışmalar, Tanzimat dönemi mimarisinin genel çehresini belirlemede oldukça etkili olmuştur; işte bundan dolayıdır ki Smith, oluşturduğu mimarilerle araştırılmaya değer bir mimardır. Bu çalışmaya sağlıklı bilgilerle donanmış bir çalışma niteliği kazandırmak için Başbakanlık Osmanlı Arşivi ve kısa adı RIBA olan İngiliz Kraliyet Mimarları Enstitüsü ile sıkı bir temasa geçilmiş, elde edilen belgeler ışığı altında çalışma sağlam temeller üzerine oturtulmaya çalışılmıştır. Ayrıca günümüze ulaşan yapıları analiz etmek için yapıların bulunduğu yerlerde çıplak gözle araştırmalar yapılmış, elde edilen veriler görsel malzemeyle desteklenmeye çalışılmıştır.|
The result of the Ottoman Westernization policy which had gained an acceleration with the announcement of the command of Tanzimat in the nineteenth century, some new changes had occurred in education, in military service and in human rights. Related to this announcement, Sultan Abdülmecid, had accepted the power of law above his domination for the very first time in the Ottoman history. The importance of this acceptance is that Abdülmecid was quite ready to do some new changes in both social life and in political life. The Westernization policy in the nineteenth century of Ottoman Empire, had ofcourse influenced the fine arts and especially the architecture. While Europe was experiencing the eclectic manner in the architecture of the nineteenth century, Ottoman architecture was also in a chaos. In Abdülmecid period, besides Baroque and Empire styles, other styles were also adapted to the Ottoman architecture. With the influence of the eclectic architectural manner of the nineteenth century Europe, the buildings in eclectic style were constructed in İstanbul. The Ottoman architects in the nineteenth century were not capable to construct buildings in large dimensions. Because constructing these kinds of buildings were beyond their capabilities, the non-Muslim and the foreign architects were charged for this job; and William James Smith was one of them. Being one of the Works Office architects in England, Smith was sent out to Istanbul in 1841 to reconstruct the British Embassy which was burnt down in the year of 1831 by the Pera fire. During his residence in between 1841 and 1853, Smith had built not only official buildings but domestic buildings such as Tophane Kiosk in Tophane, Winter Garden and Alay Kiosk in the complex of Dolmabahçe Palace and a Kiosk for Ibrahim Ethem Pasha aswell. XI The official buildings that Smith had constructed are: British Embassy (1844-1854), The Chapel of St. Helena which is in the garden of the British Embassy (1849-1856), Mecidiye Barracks (1 847-1 854), some Parts of the Selimiye Barracks which face the Harem region and the North, Tophane-i Amire Hospital(Gümüşsuyu Soldier Hospital)(1 847-1 854), Seaman's Hospital (1844-1854), British Consulates 849-1 858), British Prison(1849- 1858) and Consular Offices in Kuledibi. It is known that Smith, had the responsibility of educating some young Muslim architect caliphs both in theoretical and practical ways. Towards the end of his residence in İstanbul Smith, was criticized in many ways such as not dealing with the construction of some buildings. Because of this complains he was sent back to England by the ambassador Canning in 1853. Smith was nominated as a fellow in the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1841 but his membership was refused by the institute. Smith had applied for being a member in the Royal Institute of British Architects in 1855 and he was elected as a member in 1856. It was not found out that Smith had worked elsewhere in Europe. During his residence in İstanbul, Smith was appreciated and rewarded by Abdülmecid for the works he had done for the Ottoman architecture. Smith's architecture is an eclectic architecture. He generally refers to the elements of Antique architecture. Noe-Greek, Neo-Renaissance, Neo classical, Empire and Mannerist styles are the styles which can be seen in Smith's structures. The British Embassy, one of Smith's works, is the palace which was built for the British ambassador in Istanbul in between the years of 1844 and 1854, has the characteristics of the Renaissance architecture. Its style is the domestic Italian style after the same model as the Reform Club house which was constructed by Charles Barry in between 1837 and 1841 in London. The mass of the palace is just like the domestic Italian buildings which were built in the Renaissance period. The Rustic texture of the entrance floor, the profilings which separate the floors from each other, the order of the windows and the cornice remind us the domestic Italian buildings built in the fifteenth century. The perfect geometry of the Renaissance buildings and the "armonia" maintained by this geometry can also be seen at this palace. Because of all this characteristics, this building of Smith is Neo-Renaissance in style. XII The Mecidiye Barracks which Smith had built in between the years of 1847 and 1854 has both Neo-classical and Neo-Greek architectural characteristics. The entrance of the buildings is just like a Greek temple. The orders of the windows, columns, pilasters and the profilings do remind us the characteristics of the Antique architecture. Being another example of eclectic architecture of Smith, this building is Neo-classical in general. The Tophane-i Amire Hospital in Gümüşsüyü, has also a Greek entrance and Antique architectural elements such as pilasters and columns but generally it is more likely to be a Neo-classical work of Smith. One of the examples of Smith's domestic architecture, The Tophane Kiosk, which was constructed for Abdülmecid, has the characteristics of the Empire style on its four facade. The shapes of the windows, the disciplined ornaments framed with the rectangular shapes, the gofferings in between the windows, the keyed arches and the ornaments about army tools on the piers of the entrance are typical characteristics of the Empire style. As a matter of fact, the Empire style aims to use the architectural elements of the Roman architecture thus this building refers to the forms of the Roman architecture. The Seaman's Hospital dated in between 1844 and 1854 is an eclectic example of Smith's works. The pilasters in Corinthian order, the profilings separating the floors from each other, the podium where the building sits on remind us the Neo-classical structures. On the other hand the texture of the first floor wall reminds us the domestic Italian buildings built in the Renaissance period. There are empty rectangular shapes between the first and the second floor which can be seen in the Ottoman Empire style sometimes. All these things are enough to call this structure eclectic. The British prison in Kuledibi built in between 1849 and 1858 has the characteristics of the Empire style. The keyed arched windows and doors, the flame forms make the style of this building Empire. The Consular Offices is the Other example of Smith's eclectic works. The architectural elements and the ornamented cross-beams on the facade make this building Neoclassical; but on the other hand the wall texture of the entrance floor reminds us the wall texture of the domestic Italian buildings built in the Renaissance period. The exaggeration of the keystones with decorative function and the keystoned pediment which can be seen on this building, are the main characteristics of the Mannerist architecture. xin Just before his departure from İstanbul, Smith had completed a winter garden for Abdülmecid with rooms attached, furnished and fitted up with articles of English manufacture made expressly for it. In the center of the winter garden there is a crystal fountain of large dimensions. This winter garden stands next to a kiosk called Alay Kiosk in the complex of Dolmabahçe Palace. The Alay Kiosk is also an eclectic work of Smith. This Kiosk was built for Abdülmecid in order him to watch his public. The building is supported by the columns of Corinthian order. The ornaments are framed by rectangular shapes. Every ornament is disciplined like in Empire style; thus this building has both Neo-classical and Empire style in general. Smith had built a domestic structure for İbrahim Ethem Pasha in Kantarcılar region. This kiosk does not exist in Kantarcılar today. In the map of Pervititch dated in 1941 it is noticed that this building was being used as a tobacco depot lastly. It is also noticed that this kiosk was built by stone and had three floors. The decoration inside was said to be timber. The kiosk also had a Turkish bath inside. The building itself had two entrance, one with the Baroque stairs. Smith had worked on the project of the renovation of the Naum Theater and the Galata Sarayı. It is not so clear that he prepared a project on Galata Sarayı, which was burnt down in 1848; but it is clear that he had renovated the Naum Theater in 1853 when it was burnt for the second time. The building was actually built by Fossati brothers. Naum Theatre was one of the examples of eclectic architecture. When the theatre was burnt down in 1853, Smith had made no changes in Fossatis' project. The decoration of the theatre was made of timber and said to be quite rich. Naum theatre was burnt down in 1870 for the third time and never built again. It is obvious as a whole that Smith had built structures with eclectic manner. Neo-classical, Neo-Greek, Neo-Renaissance, Empire and Mannerist styles are the styles that all can be seen in his structures. In the nineteenth century there was an eclectic attitude in the Ottoman architecture. Because Smith had this attitude in building his structures it is worth studying on how Smith adapted his architectural attitude to the buildings that he built for the Ottoman Empire and how he influenced the general appearance of the nineteenth century Ottoman architecture. xiv In order to prepare a dependable study, several researches were done in the archive of the Ottoman Premiership. The buildings were analyzed in the place where they stood and the photos were taken for analyzing the details of the buildings. Some buildings, such as the St. Helena Chapel, The İbrahim Ethem Pasha Kiosk in Kantarcılar and the British Consulate in Kuledibi couldn't be analyzed like other buildings. Only the plan of these buildings were maintained. On the other hand it is not clear that the consular offices were built as Smith wanted because Smith was sent back to England in 1 853 and the Consular Offices were finished in 1858 by another person who was sent from England. In order to find more information about Smith Royal Academy, Royal Institute of British Architects, Westminster Reference Library and Dr. Marc Crinson, the Royal Institute of British Architects member were sent faxes. Unfortunately they neither knew about Smith's birthday nor his educational studies. Therefore it was impossible to find out information about Smith's birthday and his educational studies. It should be confessed that the documents which were maintained in the archive of Ottoman Premiership, sent from Dr. Marc Crinson and the Royal Institute of British Architects gave a chance to prepare a dependable study on William James Smith, one of the architects who had a great influence on the nineteenth century Ottoman architecture.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996|
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
|Appears in Collections:||Mimarlık Tarihi Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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