Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17019
Title: Onsekizinci Yüzyıl İstanbul Yapılarında Sütun Başlıkları
Other Titles: The Capitals Of The Eighteenth Century Istanbul Buildings
Authors: Özer, Filiz
Önel, Emine
55644
Mimarlık Tarihi
History of Architecture
Keywords: 18. yüzyıl
Mimarlık tarihi
Sütunlar
İstanbul
18th century
Architectural history
Columns
Istanbul
Issue Date: 1996
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: "XVIII. Yüzyıl İstanbul Yapılarında Sütun Başlıkları" konulu bu çalışma altı ana bölüm içerisinde ele alınmıştır. Tez konusunun dönemini oluşturan XVIII. Yüzyıl Osmanlı împaratorluğu'nda Batılılaşma ya da Batıya Açılma olarak adlandırılan dönemdir. Osmanlı împaratorluğu'nda Batılılaşma siyasal, askeri ve sosyal alanlarda görülmüştür. Bu süreçte mimarlık alanında da değişimler yaşanmıştır. Osmanlı Mimarlığı bu değişimi kendi özgün geleneği içerisinde geliştirerek, batıya öykünmekten çok yeni bir üslup oluşturarak yaşamıştır. Mimarideki bu değişimi yapılarda kullanılan sütun başlıklarında da izleyebilmemiz mümkündür. Tezin giriş bölümünü oluşturan birinci bölümde, önce Osmanlı împaratorluğu'nda Batılılaşma Dönemi ile ilgili kısa bir açıklama yapılmıştır. Daha sonra tezin amacı belirtilmiştir. Tezin dönemini oluşturan XVIII. Yüzyıl'ın tarihsel sınırlan çizilmiştir. Metin kısmının ve görsel malzemenin oluşturulmasmda izlenen yöntemler belirtilmiştir. Bu bölümde son olarak Osmanlı Mimarlığı'nda sütun başlıkları konusunda daha önce yapılmış tez çalışmaları hakkında bilgi verilmiştir. İkinci bölümde sütun başlığı ve tarihçesi ele alınmıştır. Sütun başlığının ve sütun başlığını oluşturan bölümlerin tanımlan yapılmıştır. Sütun başlığının gelişimi kullanıldığı ilk dönemden itibaren ele alınmış, XVIII. Yüzyıl'a kadar incelenmiştir. Sütun başlığı tipleri açıklanırken yapısal ve bezemesel özellikleri açıklanmıştır. Kullanıldıktan dönemlerden önceki dönemlerden etkilenmişlerse bu etkiler ve daha sonraki dönemlere olan etkileri varsa bunlar belirtilmiştir. Sütun başlığının gelişimi, sütun başlığının ilk kullanıldığı uygarlıktan itibaren ele alınmış ve çeşitli uygarlık ve bölgelere göre görülen başlık tipleri, bunlardaki yenilikler ve değişimler anlatılmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde XVIII. Yüzyıfda Osmanlı İmparatoriuğu'nda Batılılaşma Dönemi ele alınmıştır. İmparatorluğun siyasal, askeri, ekonomik ve sosyal alanlardaki batılılaşma süreci açıklanmıştır. Mimarideki değişimler behrtilmiştir. Dördüncü bölüm tezin katalog bölümünü oluşturur. Katalog bölümünde daha önce sınırlan çizilen bu dönemde, inşa edilmiş olan yapılar kronolojik sıra içerisinde ele alınmıştır. Yapıda kullanılmış olan sütun başlığı tiplerinin neler olduğu belirtilmiştir. Bu başlık tiplerinin özellikleri anlatılmış ve başlık tiplerinin yapı içersinde bulunduklan yerler behrtilmiştir. Anlatılan sütun başlığı tipleri, yapılara ait fotoğraflarla gösterilmiştir. Beşinci bölüm tezin değerlendirme bölümünün yapıldığı bölümdür. Bu bölümde XVIII. Yüzyıl İstanbul yapdanndaki sütun başlığı tipleri belirlenmiştir. Tezin altıncı bölümü sonuç bölümünü oluşturur. Bu bölümde XVIII. Yüzyıl Osmanlı Mimarlığı'nda İstanbul'da inşa edilen yapılarda kullanılmış olan sütun başlıklarının gelişim çizgisi anlatılmıştır. Bu dönemde kullanılmış olan başlıklardaki çeşitlilik ele alınmıştır.
The thesis is called "The Capitals of the XVII Ith. century Istanbul Buildings", and is composed of six parts. XVIIIth. century in the Ottoman Empire which is focus on in this thesis is known as the beginning of cultural integration with the West or so called "Westernization". The westernization is realized on military, social, political manners. We can also talk about changes in architecture. However, Ottoman architecture manages to develop this change by taking into consideration of Its own tradition as well. Thus, a new born style rather than a slight copy of European architecture is created. The same aspects can be fallowed also on the capitals. The first part consists of some general informative framework for the determined historical period, and explanations on individual parts of the work and also some explanations on the aim of forming those parts of the work. An individual part which gives a general prewiev of the capital is formed in order to examine how it is started to use and its development. XVHI th. century, in the history of Ottoman Empire is viewed on time process, as a brief conclusion, dealing with what had happened before, as well as the limitations. The limits are fallowed with the reigns of the sultans. The buildings are determined according to the sultans' period. The sites of the buildings are given as well as the reasons for choosing them. There are some buildings which are not parts of catalogue. The reasons for not studying them are explained on that part. The expedition, the works on site are defined, and the procedure fallowed to compose the text and the visual material is explained. Finally, the precedant works, realized on the capitals are cited in the first part. Forexample in a graduate thesis called Capitals in Ottoman Period (Osmanlı Devri Sütun Başlıkları) and written by M. Ersuna in 1971 examines the developments in capitals. This thesis is one of the works that is done in Istanbul University Literature Faculty History of Art Department. In the same department, M. Soyal's graduated thesis dated in 1982 called Baroque Capitals of Baroque Mosques in Istanbul (İstanbul'daki Barok Camilerde Barok Sütun Başlıkları), examines only one capital type with in only one building type. Li a doctorate thesis from Yıldız Technical University Architecture Department which is written by B. Bakır in 1994 and called Baroque in Ottoman Architecture. It's Formation in Europe and It's Influence on Baroque Mosques in Istanbul (Osmanlı Mimarisi'nde Barok, Avrupa'da Oluşumu ve İstanbul'daki Barok Camilere Etkileri), capitals are examined together with the development of the planning procedures and other architectural elements. XV The second part gives some general definition on the capital. The definition of the column as an architectural object is given. The different partitions of the coluimn, also the capital are defined. The formal development of the capital is studied, beginning with the earliest known uses, until the XVTfl th. century. Since the subject of the tesis is XVm th. century, the development of the capitals after this century isn't included in the thesis. The typology of the capitals are given, with their formalistic and florishing characteristics. The histiorical background of this definition is not disregarded and it is explained, as well as their influences to the future devlopments. The develpoment of the capital is handed from the first known cultural pattern, using the capital. The sites and regions are summarized in order to get a general typology, with cultural differences, developmets throughout history. The aim was not only to capture cultural heritage, which has shaped for the capitals in Ottoman architecture for a defined time limit, but also to fix "capitals" as a seperate and focused topic. Concerning the capitals used in the buildings erected in İstanbul, or in the different constructions, we must talk about a serious cultural accumulation on the Ottoman territories. Istanbul, the capital of the state is also a generator in order to collect theses effects. On that aspect, the capitals in Mesopotamian architecture is the first step. Capitals in Northern Syria, Egyptian architecture, Greek architecture, Roman architecture, Byzantian architecture, Ottoman architecture and Europaen architecture are examined. Anatolian Seljuk architecture also are handed in order to get a sufficient lay-out to fix capital as a major topic. The capitals are given with diffrent examples from each period, the typology is done with the help of photographs and drawings. The third part includes a general framework of the cultural westernization in Ottoman Empire. As it is explained above westernization is political and social. That should not be understood as a complete change, also in the cultural scheme, but westernization in Ottman Empire is something new on archiectural aspects. The need for the reforms on the politics are seen after the end of the XVII th. century. The wars of the XVH th. century are conclued with the deals called Karlofça and Pasarofça. Large territories was lost and the military forces was no more enough for the European armies. The traditional system was needed to be reformed. European systems were examples for these movements. The first declarations and political contacts were realized with France, also by means of the traditional relations dating from the XVI th. century. Political contacts were elaborated by the ambassadors. Yirmisekiz Mehmed Çelebi was among those ambassadors. The things which he had told when he came back aroused great interest. The period so called in Ottoman history, "Tulip Period" was the time, that serious changes are realized. The first book was published, on that period. The reforms continued on Mahmud I 's reign, military reforms were tried to do. The first academy for engineers, different military divisions of the army were fixed. The gun production with modern standards began. The students were sent to the west. XVI The reformist movements continued on Abdülhamid I 's reign. A group of French engineers came to Istanbul. They worked for the training of the technicians working in the army. In Selim m/s reign a new army so called "Nizam-Cedid" (New Order) was established. "Nizam-i Cedid Hatt-i HumayunV, a new law declared to reorganize taxes and finances. Embassies are established in foreign countries. The western features in different kinds affected social life. The ones, who lived in Europe brought many features, different materials, clothes etc., chancing the fashion and shoping the social life. The first publishing shop was established by Ibrahim Mütefferika. All these pseudo-radical movements created reactions as well. The publishing shop is closed. Some changes on miliatry system are reversed. Mustafa HI, ordred the destruction of the European materials, which had been using in the Palace. These movements are projected to the architecture too. The western styles was active on design of the new features. Ahmed HI. was deeply affected by the definitions of the palaces in Paris, quoted by Yirmisekiz Mehmed Çelebi. He ordered the construction of a palace İn Kağıthane. That was the palace of Sadabad. The kiosks are erected on the surroundings of the palace. The western effects on the architecture are first seen on theses kiosks. The new forms, curvilinear on many cases, ondulating surfaces, "S", "C" shapes are common. These interpretations on XVm th.century architecture are born, by the influences of Baroque and Rococo styles in Europe. However, stylistic transfer is not a direct copy. As we can talk about a traditional lay-out, the new features are conclued with a new interpretation. The changes can be fallowed from the plans, designs of the windows, columns and adornments, as well as details. The fourth part is the catalogue. The buildings of the period, which is defined above is studied chronologically. The list is composed in a way that one building is defined with its region, area, street, in order to get a strict location and there is another historical building from Ottoman period which is close or next to described building that building is also pointed out. The contraction dates are given. Temporate sultan's reign is fixed, as well as the financer is quoted. The plans of the buildings are shortly defined. In some cases the plans are also given. If the building is part of a külliye or an educational complex, the different partitions of the complex are also listed. The types of the capitals which are used in the building are explained. Their characteristics, and if so, the places of different types, which are used in different places of the building or complex, are shown. The different types, are visualized with photographs of the building too. The fifth part of the thesis is the evaluation of the thesis. The typology is realized for the capitals in the buildings erected in Istanbul, in XVm th. century. Each case of the typology consist of a subheading of this part. The first division of the fifth part is the capitals with mukaraas motif. Along with the examples in which muqaraas is the only motif, other examples in which muqarnas motif is used with flower and rosette motifs are also indicated. Moreover, a particular example that muqarnas motif is used with palmet motif is also shown. Buildings where these kindsof capitals are used are also indicated.. xvu In the second division, the capitals with lozange motif are showed. The capitals on that part are divided to three subgroup. The first subgroup includes the ones which have simple use of the motif. The second subgroup includes the capitals, in which the lozange motif is used with the circle. The third one belongs to the ones with the use of flower motif. In the third division, the capitals without adornments are examined. These capitals exhibit no ornament, except horizontal partitions realized with cornices. The buildings exhibiting that kind of capitals are shown. In the fourth one, the capitals with acanthus leaf motif are defined. The subgroups for this part are shaped according to the different uses of acanthus leaf motif with the other ones. In capitals with acanthus leaf motif, we not only have som examples in which acanthus leaf is used alone but also have some examples in which it's used with other motife. In these capitals types acanthus leaf is used along with flute motif, oyster motif, volute motif, bead and real motif and egg frieze adornment. There are also some examples in which a couple of motifs are examined together. The first subgroup is the simple use of acanthus leaf motif without added ones. The examples are given. In this capital type, aftr the annulet, the whole surface of the capitals is decorated with acanthus leaf motif. The second subgroup is fluted capitals with acanthus leaf motif. The examples are given. In this capital type, acanthus leaves are used and the surface of the capital is fluted. In the third subgroup, the capitals having acanthus leaf motif, with oyster motif are given. Some buildings are given as examples. In all those examples acanthus leaf motif is repeated together with oyster motif on the whole surface of the capitals. In the fourth subgroup acanthus leaf motifs with volutes are examined. The buildings getting such arrangement are quoted. In this capital type if s seen that acanthus leaf motif gets voluted in the corners of the capitals. The fifth subgroup includes the capitals getting acanthus leaf motif, with bead and reel motif additions are studied. The examples are given. In this examples bead and reel motif decorations are seen on top of the capital. The sixth subgroup shows the capitals having acanthus leaf motif, with egg frieze motif additions. The examples are given. In these examples it's seen that egg frieze motif is used with acanthus leaf motif on top of the capital. The seventh subgroup defines acanthus leaf motif capitals with added motifs, more then one kind, like voluted, fluted, medallion, oyster, etc... Buildings having these kinds of capitals are given as examples. xvni The fifth part of the capital typology consists of the capitals which have leaf motife. It's seen only two buildings and these are given as examples. In this type the corners of capitals are decorated with simple leaves without any adornments. In the sixth part, the fluted capitals are studied. The examples are given. In these examples the whole surface is fluted right after the annulet of he capital. The seventh part includes voluted capitals, along with related examples. We come across diffrent implications of volute motifin these examples. The eight part shows capitals which can not be ordered between the groups or partitions given above. Their use are unique for their time. The list is composed of their location dealing different buildings. The sixth part of the thesis is the conclusion. The development procedure of XVIII th.century capitals is fixed. The quantitative and qualitative analysis is made. The capitals with muqarnas and lozenge motifs are traditional for Ottoman use. Their popularity has continued through XVIII th. century too. Their last use on the defined period is given, with their location and the buildings in which they have been used. The new borne capitals are explained with focus on the akanthus motif. The ecclectical use of akanthus motif is examined with the same locationary approach.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/17019
Appears in Collections:Mimarlık Tarihi Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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