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|Title:||Konut Kooperatifleri Eskişehir Örneğinde Bir Alan Çalışması|
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science and Technology
|Abstract:||İnsanlar eski çağlardan beri konut ile ilgili bir çok sorunla karşılaşmışlardır. Türkiye'de ise konut sorunu temel sorunların içinde yer almaktadır. Türkiye gibi hızlı kentleşen ülkelerin karşılaştığı en önemli sorun, kırdan kente gelen, kentli yaşamın gerektirdiği hünerlere sahip olmayan büyük kitlelere yeterli konut sağlamaktır. Bu ülkelerde konut sorununun çözülmesini karmaşı klaştı ran en önemli unsur "Konutun bir barınma aracı olma ötesinde, yarın için bir güvence, yatırım aracı, hatta gerektiğinde finansman kurumlarına teminat olarak gösterilebilen bir mal olma özelliğine sahip olmasıdır." Hızlı kentleşmenin gerektirdiği ölçüde, yerel yönetimler imarlı arsa üretememededirler. Bu, tek parsel üzerinde tek mal sahibinin konut yapabilmesi kuralıyla birleşince, orta sınıfın konut sahibi olabilmesi imkansız hale gelmştir. Bu sorun apartmanlaşma ve kat mülkiyetinin olanaklı kılınmasıyla aşılmaya çalışılmıştır. Bunun için konut sahibi olmak isteyenleri biraraya getirebilecek bir mekanizma ve bir arsa üzerinde yapılacak apartmanın her katının ayrı ayrı sahip olunmasına olanak verecek bir yasal düzenleme gerekmiştir. Böylece iki mekanizma ortaya çıkmıştır. Bunlardan birisi yapsatçı diye adlandırılan bir küçük girişimcilik türü, diğeri konut kooperatifçiliği olmuştur. Bu tez çalışmasında Eskişehir ili örneğinde konut yapı kooperatifleri ile ilgili araştırma yapılmıştır. Bu araştırma sonucunda Eskişehir ili konut yapı kooperatiflerinin genel özellikleri incelenmiştir. Bu inceleme Eskişehir konut kooperatiflerinin diğer illerle benzer özellikler taşıdığını göstermiştir. Bu tezde incelenen diğer bir konu ise Eskişehir ili örneği kapsamında kooperatiflerin inşaat dışı giderlerinin ortak başına düşen paylarının incelenmesidir. Bu bağlamda sınanması düşünülen bir varsayım olan, büyük kooperatiflerin ortak başına düşen inşaat dışı giderlerinin, küçük kooperatiflere göre daha fazla olduğu araştırılmıştır. Bu araştırma yapılırken, kooperatiflerin inşaatlarının bitmemiş olmasından dolayı sadece inşaat dışı giderler ele alınarak sonuca ulaşılmaya çalışılmıştır.|
In this thesis, the housing co-operatives, that is developed to be the solution of the housing problems, are examined with the example of Eskişehir. In this research, one of the object was to examine the co-operatives in Eskişehir with their, characteristics of the houses, organization structures and problems. The other object was, to examine the hypothesis " The expense out of the construction that the members paid in the big co-operatives is more than the little ones." Before the research, the concept of the cooperative system and the historical developement of the cooperatives were examined. In our present world everybody is familiar with the word cooperative. However its meaning in individual countries varies depending on differences in implementation. While in some countries it is associated with ownership and management, in others it refers to the organization of the housing supply. Dispite all these differences, while the word, in its essence, points at a development between the state and the market, answering the expectations of the participants / users through a democratic mechanism not aiming at propit stands out as an important objective making this kind of a development significant. However, it seems impossible to say that cooperatives always stand exactly midway between the state and the market. In social welfare countries the difference between cooperatives and the state can be explained by the face to face relations in the former. However, in some other countries, cooperatives stand so close to the market that face to face relations emerge as a factor discriminating the cooperative from the market. Housing cooperatives in Turkey have a history of more than 60 years. From implementations in the early Republic period to the present, the word housing cooperative has been associated with an organization moulding housing supply. While cooperatives fashioned their future according to the characteristics, they adopted in their first examples in the 1930s, they have usually been considered a choice generally outside the market has varied with time. Although, in Turkey too; face to face relations have emerged as the most important characteristic distinguishing cooperatives in general from the market, the changes in their position in the market have modified the importance of face to face relations in the development of housing and the neighbourhood. After the decleration of republic, in 1934 first cooperative was founded with the name Bahçelievler in Ankara. Till 1950 cooperatives produced only houses. With the change made in the Title Deed Law in 1954 and the enactment of the FlatOwnership Law in 1966, production in the form of apartmant blocks rapidly spread among cooperatives. With the increase of the population of the workers in industry the government gave motgage credits to workers and as a solution in years 1945-1960 the number of housing cooperatives increase from 80 to 1800. Years between 1960-1980 there was not any developement in housing cooperatives. The serious crisis that the housing sector went through in the early 1980's had a negative influence on projects under the leadership of local governments as well as other supply patterns. And then The Mass Housing Law enacted in 1981 In 1984 the enactment of the new The Mass Housing Law and the evidence that priority in resource usage would be given to cooperatives resulted in the rapid establishment of numerous cooperatives and even cooperative unions. The share of cooperatives in housing production gradually increased. These developments were followed by the establishment of union confederations. While the production activities in Batikent gained momentum, similar projects started to be dublicated in various places. The Housing Development Administration responsible of administering the Mass Housing Fund provided loans to 946,696 dwellings in the years 1984-1994. Cooperative efforts produced 85.7% of the dwellings which received supports. In spite of this rapid quantitive increase, the inadequacy of technical and social infrastructure as well as that of the quality attained in the dwellings produced proved that in implementation it was not possible to create neighbourhoods that would improve the urban life quality and the research done also showed that tese efforts did not give members of the lower income groups the possibility to change their existing conditions. In Eskişehir the first cooperative was founded in 1960. It was built in 4 years. It was an appartmant with 32 members. It still continues its function as a house. After the examination of the history of housing cooperatives, a reasearch was done about Eskişehir coperatives. First of all a list of housing co-operatives that are built in 1980-1994 was prepared with the help of the archive in the Chamber of Commerce in Eskişehir. With the help of the list 100 co-operatives was chosen, in a coindential way and to know more about the co-operatives, an information form was prepared. This information form included the questions about the co-operatives in Eskişehir. First the numbers of the members was defined, and then their foundation dates, registration dates was searched to examine their production process. And then their building sites were examined, whether if they have it or they are still searching for it. In the information form there were questions about the characteristics of the houses, like the numbers of the rooms of the houses, kinds of the houses. In the archive work, to know about the organization structure of the co operatives, the careers and the education of the board of directors chiefs were searched. With the help of the archive work, the number of the members were divided into 5 groups such as 0-25, 26-50, 51-75, 76-100, 101-. After this archive work, to complete the informations about the co-operatives, a field work was done. A questionnaire survey was prepared to ask to the directors of the co-operatives. The findings of the survey showed that, in Eskişehir co-operatives, they choose mostly the use of apartmants. Most of the apartmants building sites are inside the city. The co-operatives that choose the use of villas, prefer the building sites that are out of the city. But they are less than the apartmants that are inside the city. The co-operatives that choose the use of villas said that, inside the city the value of the building sites are very expensive, because of this, they chose their building sites out of the city. Also they said that they chose the use of villas to attract people and bring them out of the city. If the results of the survey was examined, the organization structures of the co operatives can be seen. It can be said that, most of the members in the co operatives have the same income level. And in the co-operatives most of the board of directors chiefs educations are in university degree. After the organization structures, the production process of the co-operatives were examined. It was seen that, it took nearly one year, from the foundation dates of the co-operatives to finding building site. At the end it was seen that, the production process of most of the co-operatives (from the foundation of the co-operatives to the to the end of the buildings) was nearly 6-7 years. From the survey it was seen that, from the foundations to the end of the building, co-operatives faces lots of problems such as; finding a building site, obtaining credits, inadequates of the credits, the problems of the members (they don't pay the membership fee). Apart of these, the difficulties of bringing the electricity and water were also the problems of the co-operatives. At the begining, it was said that, in this research, there were two objects. One of it was to examine the co-operatives in Eskişehir, with their characteristics of the houses, organization structures and problems. The other one was to examine the hypothesis of " The expense out of the construction that the members paid in the big co-operatives, is more than the little ones." To examine the hypothesis, some analiysis were made. First the costs out of the construction were divided in 5 groups, such as, office costs, staff costs, the cost of the board of directors, the difference of income and expence and the other costs. The office cost included mail, tax, notary, stationery, stamp, decleration, photocopy, bank, electricity, etc. The staff costs included the costs of the people that are working for the co operative. The costs of the board of directors included the money paid to the board of directors and control of directors. The difference of income and expence, is the money that come from the last year's difference of income and expence. The other costs included transportation, heating, etc. With the help of these costs, the expence out of the construction were examined. The expence out of the construction that one member paid were also examined. It was seen that as the members of the co-operatives increase, they pay more expence out of the construction. Correlation analiysis were also made about these costs and the size of the co operatives. It was seen that, the co-operatives that have more than 70 members, have the relationship with the office costs, staff costs, the costs of the board of directors, the difference of income and expence and the other costs. Actually the co-operatives that have more than 70 members, have a relationship with the expence out of cost. While this work was done, the constructions of the co-operatives were not finished. Because of this only the expence out of the construction was researched. At the end, after all these analiysis it can be said that " The expence out of the construction that the members paid in the big co-operatives is more than the little ones.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998|
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
|Appears in Collections:||Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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