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Title: Mevcut Tarihi Yerleşimlerin Turizm Amaçlı Kullanımları Ve Behramkale'de (assos) Örnek Alan Çalışması
Other Titles: The Tourism Model For Evaluation Historic And Cultural Settlements, A Case Of Assos
Authors: Erkman, Uğur
Gemci, Ayşe Gül
Keywords: Assos; Tarihi kent merkezi; Turizm; Çanakkale-Behramkale
Assos ;Historical city centre ;Tourism ; Çanakkale-Behramkale
Issue Date: 1995
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Bu çalışma da turizm sektöründe kültürel ve doğal çevrelere yönelen turistik potansiyelin değerlendirilmesinde mevcut tarihi yerleşimlerin kullanılmasına yönelik inceleme ve bir örnek uygulama örneği yapılarak belli sonuçlara ulaşmak hedeflenmiştir. Birinci bölüm, konuya giriş niteliği taşımaktadır. İkinci bölümde, turizmin tanımı, özellikleri, hareketleri ve Türkiye' deki turizm sektörünü genel olarak incelenmiştir. Üçüncü bölümde, turistik konaklama tesislerinin genel nitelikleri tanımlanmış, konaklamayı etkileyen faktörler, birinci derece ve ikinci derece olarak irdelenmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde, turistik yerleşim kavramı tanımlanmış ve mevcut tarihi yerleşimlerin turistik potansiyelleri incelenmiştir. Beşinci bölümde, mevcut tarihi yerleşimlerin turizm amaçlı kullanımları için model analizi yapılmış, belirlenen hedef ve amaçlar çerçevesinde turistik fonksiyonların mevcut mimariye uyarlamaları irdelenmiş, çeşitli örneklerin ardından seçilen mevcut yerleşimde bu çalışma denenmiştir. Bu çalışma sonunda mevcut tarihi yerleşimlerin turizm amaçlı kullanımlarım sağlayacak çeşitli durumlar ortaya çıkmış ve çözüm seçenekleri sunulmuştur.
The settlements gained new images with the rapid development of production and administrative activities after the industrial revolution. Tourism that developed as a social science and its main object are human, showed a large scale growth as a result of technological developments, increasing income levels and under developed countries. In second chapter, the general definition tourism is described.Tourism has a complex structure and a variety of activities. Fade group has a special motivation and tourism penetrates every segment of human life. This complex activity provides vital information from a variety of branches of Science. It has continuous relations with Economy, Geography, Psychology, Sociology, Medical Sciences, Politics and Law. Universal definition focused on interrelation of human beings globally. Here the main objective is to comprehend these complex phenomena in all aspects. For any individual the decision to take a holiday stems from both needs and desires. Which are extrinsic, a feeling that the individual would get pleasure from doing something, and are acquired through and dependent on the value system in society. Stabler' s works included the demand and supply structure and motivation of tourism industry. Motivations for pleasure travel contain push factors related to the home environment, such as break from work, escape from to the stimulus of new places and the attractions of destinations. Motivations have been classified: 1. Physical and physiological motivation 2. Social motivations 3. Cultural motivations 4. Relax and re-creative motivations In third chapter,the supply structure of tourism industry consists of resources and attributes. These factors from the touristic product. Land defines the supply structure of demand in tourism. Touristic products the sun of the components that satisfies the traveling motivation of human. The touristic attributes which form supply structure of tourism industry can be classified in two groups: 1. Primary Attributes 2. Secondary Attributes Primary attributes are geographical features, such as mountains, beaches, lakes, rivers, forests, natural features, climate, historical monuments, antique cities,... etc. Secondary attributes are touristic and recreational places, transmission of information, transportation, entertainment, catering and shopping facilities and staying for the night. Drawing the threads of the argument together with respect" to demand it has been suggested that images are concerned through the inter action of needs, motivations and references on the one hand and experience, knowledge and personal characteristics on the other, to influence the decision process of selecting tourist activities and destination. A crucial element in the information available to the consumer is the image as a perceived and promoted by the supply side. In this image is founded on the resources and attributes of destination region. Successful promotion of the destination' s image result in a higher level of tourist activity with consequences for its economic socio- cultural and environmental structure. These explanations are introduced in third Chapter. XI Fourth chapter determines the interaction of tourism and the historic city and the concept of "touristic historic city". This interrelation between "conservation of history" and "tourism is included in this chapter. We can categorize landed property in two groups in relation with tourism: 1. Recreation oriented sites a- Natural sites b-Ecological sites 2. Culture oriented sites a- Historic sites b- Archeological sites c- Urban sites The importance of history as a primary or supplementary motive for recreational travel can be demonstrated at a number of spatial scales, although not all sites and objects of historical interest are to be found in Urban areas, cities play disproportionately important role as the collection and display centers for the artistic productivity and historical associations of a nation or religion. The importance of the ensemble of historical relies and buildings in creating an overall atmospheres of antiquity, that can rarely be achieved by an individual site, allows cities as a whole to become tourist attractions. Given the importance of remarkable history to the tourism industry, it is necessary to be more perceive about its definition and to introduce two related concepts to aid this analysis: 1. Historic city 2. Cultural heritage The historic city as a conceptualization of a particular sort of urban phenomenon is derived from far more than just the antiquity of the buildings gathered together in particular towns. It is composed of three elements the characteristics of the urban form; the valuation placed on aspects of that form expressed through the preservation of a conservation^ philosophy of urban management; and the functioning of the both residents in such a way that the historical attributes are consciously exploited. Such a concept with its accent on planning intervention and use can be directly related to particular consumer markets through the concept of heritage. XII These is the notion that there exists a demand for the preserved or reconstructed urban historical artifacts. Tourists have in general a more restricted knowledge of, and interest in the art and history of a region than local inhabitants. The tendency of its for tourists to associate places with a few easily recognized characteristics or landmarks of international significance and confine their visits to a pre selected handful of such attractions, clargerly ignoring those of slightly lesser merit. This aspects of the spatial behavior of visitors has been adequately examined elsewhere and related to various visitor characteristics. Historic city tourism is only one type of holiday which may be located within reach of quite different tourist regions possessing present problems of competition for resource or equally opportunities for complementary promotion. There are many examples of the tourist-historic city offering its historic attractions or its urban entertainments, catering and shopping facilities, as day excursion objectives for holiday-makers staying in neighboring beach or inland rural holiday regions. The touristic historic function is one of many urban functions, which complete or co-operate within the city, and planning for tourism without a consideration of the broader goals and problems of the city is futile. It cannot always be assumed that the marketing of the touristic historic function will accord with the other legitimate objectives of the urban managers. The marketing to visitors of the heritage of the touristic historic city offers real economic possibilities to a wide range of cities. Touristic historic city can be regarded as a whole and a functional model from Ashworth, which consists of the concentration of some uses. The impacts of the tourism explained in fifth chapter. The impacts may be absolute or relative, direct or indirect, quantitative or qualitative. The net impact of tourism may will be difficult to separate from the changes that would have occurred at any rate. The complex nature of tourism makes it extremely difficult to device a single measure of impact. Measures of economic impact, that is monetary measures, are inappropriate to the assessments of many of the environmental impacts. These impacts can be classified in four groups according to their approach: XIII 1. The impacts of tourism on the natural environment 2. The impacts of tourism on the historical and cultural environment 3. The impacts of tourism on the economic and social environment 4. The impacts of tourism on planning system and legal context The impacts of tourism are examined in positive and negative aspects. Assos case study is evaluated is the above context and further detailed in fifth chapter. It is not known exactly who are the first settlers of Assos in history. The only thing we know is that the city had been settled in the Early Bronze Age. Homer tells us that the ones who lived in the southern shores of Troad were Lelegians and they made their livings as seaman and pirates during the Troian Wars. It is claimed that the oldest name of the city was Pedasos and that the name of Assos was derived from it. Behram, the present name of the city is a derived from Makram, a Byzantine official who came to Assos on duty. Assos was the most powerful and the most important city on the northern shores of Edremit when it was captured by the Lydians in "B.C. it is said that the wealth of Gyges, Alyattes and Kroisos came partly from the rich mineral beds between Ataraeos and Bergama within the sphere of influence of Assos. Strabo mentions about some digged masses of land where these beds were, about a ceased mine and a deserted city of miners. Today, it is known that this region possesses rich silver and iron beds. The increasing power of Athens in authority and the formation of the Delian confederacy in the Vth century provided opportunities for the northwest city states. Especially for the cities on the shore participate in this confederacy. Spartans, in compliance with the agreement made in 412 B.C. with Dareios II, helped the Persians for their regaining power on the Anatolian shores. XIV As a city, the real development of Assos is in the Roman period. Especially, during the Pax Romana period Assos prospered as several cities in Anatolia did. During this period, under the influence of the edict of the emperor (381 A.D.), a lot of Roman buildings were destroyed, building stones and sculptures of marble were burnt to obtain lime and reused in the new buildings. For this reason one can hardly see any remains of marble in the city. Although Süleyman Sah captured Assos like the other peripheral settlements in 1080, Alexius Commeos, having sought an opportunity, seized the territories up to the Menderes River (1097) during the years that followed the crossing of the First Crusade, and thus, the Seljukians retreated from Troad. The pressure of the Ottomans turned into a permanent ruling in 1330 after the victory of Osman I. at Lemnos (Limni) in 1288 and the region has been dominated by Turks uninterruptedly. The ancient city developed on this rocky substructure which was surrounded by walls, on the southern part of the hill looking down the sea. While that direction of the hill was used as a quarry to obtain stone which was a necessary material for the buildings, also the buildings were placed on the man-made terraces. After entering the city through the gate facing the northwest, the road is curved like a bow just as the inclination of the hill does and the buildings were originally situated on the terraces~in parallel to this road. For this reason, instead of a grill-plan, a plan in the shape "of concentric bows which is harmonious with the topography is observed. The roads that run like bows are connected from place to place with stairs that were built perpendicular to them.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
Appears in Collections:Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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