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Title: Yirminci Yüzyıl Sanatında Mimari-heykel Yakınlaşmasına İlişkin Bir İnceleme
Other Titles: A Study About The Approach Of Architecture And Sculpture In The Art Of The Twentieth Century
Authors: İnceoğlu, Mine
Erk, Eda
Keywords: Heykel; Mimarlık; Sanat
Sculpture ;Architecture ;Art
Issue Date: 1995
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: 19. yüzyılın endüstüri devrimi, 20. yüzyılın başlarından itibaren sanat ve mimarlık dünyasına köklü değişiklikler getirmiştir. 19. yüzyılın taklitçi eklektisizmine karşın, 20. yüzyılın Ekspresyonizm, Kübizm, Fütürizm, Suprematizm gibi tüm sanat yaklaşımları tamamen soyutlamaya yöneliktir. Aynı zamanda tüm bu yönelimlerin en olumlu ve optimistik yam, mühendislikte olduğu kadar, diğer üretici sanatlarla da birleşme çabası içinde olmalarıdır: Mimarlık, mobilya, imalat vb. Bu yaklaşımdan yola çıkılarak bir mekan kurma sanatı olan mimarlık ve üç boyutluluğuyla bir hacim sanatı olan heykelin birbirleriyle en çok yakınlaşan sanat kollan olacağı bir gerçektir. Bu iki sanat da varoluşları itibarıyla bir kütle ve hacim gerçeğine, bulundukları ve yarattıkları mekan ile de bir mekan gerçeğine sahiptirler. Bu nedenle de varolan anlayışların getirdiği nispetlerde, bir mimari eser sahip olduğu kütlesel niteliklerle bir heykel olabilir veya aynı şekilde bir heykel objesi mekan gerçekliğine bakış açısıyla mimari gibi düşünülebilir. Bu çalışmanın amacı kütle, hacim ve mekan gerçekliklerinden yola çıkarak 20. yüzyılın sanat anlayışları çerçevesinde, mimari-heykel yakınlaşmasını ortaya koymaktır. Çalışmanın sonunda ortaya çıkan gerçek şudur ki 20. yüzılın başlarından beri süregelen görsel sanat alanlarındaki değişim sonucunda, mimarlık ve heykel sanatları birbirlerine gitgide yakınlaşmışlardır. Bu yakınlaşma sonucu artık bu iki sanat kolu arasındaki ayırımın ortadan kalktığı söylenebilir.
The industrial revolution of the 19. century resulted in the creation of several new understandings right from the beginning of the 20. century, especially trough creating a big burst in the European countries in the field of art. These are the trends, such as Ekspressionism, Cubism, Futurism, Surrealism, Dadaism, Constructivism etc. While some of the aforesaid trends influenced all the branches of art, some came into being, only in certain areas. For example, the trend of Futurism influanced all the areas of painting, sculpture, music and architecture, however the trend of Dadaism couldn't be effectual in the field of architecture. But there is reality which can't be disregarded, that is all trends of art of the 20. century have influenced the productive arts, such as engineering branches, and furnituremaking, manufacturing and architecture. Most of these trends have a characteristic as writing all the branches of art. The sharp classification understanding appeared in the Renaissance period is now gradually disappearing. When we consider the architecture and sculpture art in this context: Architecture is the art of establishment of site, when considered, as a functional art. The sculpture, however, is an art of volume with its three dimensional structure. Architecture and sculpture are the arto, which have similarities regarding their features of mass, volume and space. Following this starting point, the introduction comprises the presentation of the problem and content, and the second chapter the common spesifications of the arts of architecture and sculpture as examined according to the classification given bellow: 1. Features regarding the mass and the volume 1.1. Mass and volume in statue 1.1.1. Measurement and proportion 1.1.2. Balance 1.3. Rhythm and repetition 1.4. Pedestal 1.5. Light 1.6. Material xw 1.2. Mass and volume in architecture 1.2.1. Scales and proportion 1.2.2. Visual balance 1.2.3. Rhythm and repetition 1.2.4. Shapes of basic ingredients 2. Features regarding in the space 2.1. Space concept in sculpture 2.2. Space concept in architecture When examining the features regarding the mass and the volume, the factors influencing the aesthetic perception of the architectural and sculpture works are considered. When designing the statue block, the dimensions of this mass are important regarding its influence. The symmetry of the work is the indication of its defense of an opinion in a pretentious way. The ryhthm infuses the concept of infinity and time with the work. The pedestal, on the other hand which is valid only for sculpture masses, exposes the power and existence of the work. Although the light factor is one of the most important ingredients here and there, it is often a characteristic related to the choice of material. The choice of bright materials, such as bronse, make the light factor an updated matter. Regarding the art of architecture, there are some basic elements forming the masses. Depending on the modification of such elements, the plastic features of the architectural masses will differentiate. Additionally, measurement, proportion, symmetrical ballance and rhythm are other features influencing the aesthetic formation of the architectural mass. As for the space, another common feature of architecture and sculpture: Architecture is the art to create a space. There are the concepts of outer space and inner space. On the other hand, the sculpture expresses the anxiety to create an inner space, altough it already contains a fact of space regarding its place. This concept of the inner space at the sculpture may appear in very different forms. Besides the sculpture, which create inner spaces at architectural dimensions, there are scupture, which create imaginary spaces due to tricks of silhouette and light. In the third chapter of the study, the influence of the effectual trends of art in the 20. century on two branches of art, namely architecture and sculpture, which are deemed as two close branches, is examined. In addition, the factors, which approach and distinguish these arts, have been examined for each of these trends. With the trend of Ekspressionism, the works of art has become for the first time such works, which reflect the impressions and are subject to interpretation. This pecularity was detected especially in architecture through creating of unique forms, where plastic qualities came one step further. The being for once, the image left in the memory and the dynamics of the Expressionist building turns it to a sculpture of architectural scales. xvn With the Cubism, which followed the trend of Expressionism, the impression and abstraction reached an upper level and the demonstration of the objects was reduced to a complex composition of the geometric forms. This concept was not noticed much at the architectural works and the joining point of the Cubist architecture and sculpture couldn't go beyond the front ornaments and inner space works. The influances of the Cubism trend in Italy resulted in the trend of Futurism. The philosophy of Cubism comprises the technology, power, trend, mechanical rhythm and finished materials. All kinds of traditions, shape and from past to future are rejected. The Futurist architects and sculpture used this philosophy when creating their works and utilized the same geometrical forms and factors. The Surrealism and Dadaism in the destructive atmosphere of the First World War, are the concepts where utopical and imaginary forms and senses are dominant. The most important contributions of these concepts to visual arts are to give place to "redy made" objects and to act as the beginning for the space design, which will later be known as "installation art". The influences of the concept of Cubism let two different concepts to arise in Russia and the Netherlands in 1910's. The trend, emerged in Russia at 1913, is Constructivism and that in the Netherlands at 1917 as De Stijl. The contemporary painter Picasso and the Suprematists made great contributions to the emerging of the Constructivism. Regarding the sculpture, the concept of inner space and "time" as fourth dimension related to the inner space became important together with the trend of Constructivism. In the architecture, however, we see the Constructivism in the forms of carrying structure being in the firstplace for the aesthetics of the building and the frame relationship between the masses. The concept of inner space, the concept of time, motion, mechanical aesthetics, looked for with composition of masses by random, material and spatial reality, all introduced by the Constructivism, are the common characteristics of the arts of architecture and statue, and these mitigate the definite borders between these two branches of art. The main elements of the De Stijl concept, emerged from the Netherlands, are light, colour, the integrity of inner and outher space for architecture and sculpture. The effects of mildness, obtained by barenes, plainness and the rates of being full and empty, dominate the form. The Pop Art, came into being in 1950's, has diverted to a historical direction with the concept of Post Modernism of 1980's and has maintained ite validity. "Ready made", "Installation" are the most employed methods of the trend. In architectural area there is a concept called "Cartoon Architecture", based upon the symbols and cartoon characteristics, besides the being historical. The emphasis on historical matters by Post Modernism can be observed also trough the quotations from architectural elements, used for the art of statue. This is an example to show that the art of sculpture can approach the architecture also from the point of view of mass. With the last trends of 20. century, Deconstructivism, the "non-imlicity" and "meaning-lessness" became important again. Here, the burst and crooked figures, xviii complement each other, on one hand, and push each other, on the other hand, are used. The most distinguished examples can be found at Pare de La Villette. The resemblance and entirety between the meaningless statues and the functional folies constitute a good example for the architecture becoming sculpture and sculpture becoming architecture. There are some other formalist architectural trends of 20. century othen than those well-known, which include the samples of architecture becoming sculpture. These are Organhafte Architecture. The unique forms here are closer to resembling statues. The architects, directed to one-time forms, resembling sculpture and based upon symbols, by Ekspressionism, caught the non-implicity with Deconstructivism, one of the latest concepts of our century, and rejected the classical cake forms. This means that the architecture gets gradually conceptualized and integrated with statue, another three-dimensional art. With recent concepts of art, the architecture, an art of space, may be called as "a statue at architectural dimension" due to its mass qualifications. The art concepts in 20. century, based upon symbols and interpretations, and the fact of having no reference, the top point, direct the architects towards functional sculpture. The statue, in classical sense, is an entirety of masses and volumes. Whereas, the concept of plastic has reached very different dimensions within the development phase of art. When the consider the development of art of statue during 20. century, we notice that it attained the concepts like Enviromental Sculpture, Primary Sculpture, Assemblage, Installation and Conceptual Art. These new concepts can be regarded as sculpture, since they are only three-dimensional. But there is a reality which can't be disregarded, and this is the close relation of these three- dimensional formations with architecture by concentrating on the concept of space. In the fourth chapter, the approach of architecture and sculpture is analyzed regarding the concepts of mass and space. The purpose is to present a classification proposal regarding the approach of sculpture and architecture within the framework of the trends of art in the 20. century. According to this classification proposal: 1. Sculpture becoming architecture is divided as: 1.1. Sculpture becoming architecture with the reality of space owned; 1.2. Sculpture becoming architecture by including architectural elements. The sculpture becoming architecture with their reality of space owned constitute the plastic seeking, aiming at creating the space, the most important purpose of the architecture, at the sculpture as well. These seekings are classified as follows: xix 1.1.1. Scupture creating space with architectural dimension 1. 1.2. Sculpture creating falling of real space 1.1.3. Sculpture creating urban micro space 1. 1.4. Plastic concept, which has become as inner space design 1.1.5. LandArt Sculpture creating space with architectural dimensions; these are designs which surround and encompass the human being, which influence and let be felt. These can be a monument made for the purpose of remember ant reminding, or can appear as a statue with giant dimensions. Sculpture creating the failing of real space are small sculpture, which try to create the inner space in varrious types. The sculpture creating the urban micro space are those we encounter with the design of a park or a public at urban micro space. The plastic concept, which has become an inner space design is the concept appeared with the designing of various objects in a space, which lasts since Surrealism. Land Art is the art aiming at the shoping of the nature through governing a big space on the world. 2. The architecture becoming statue is examined in three categories; 2. 1. Architecture perceived as statue regarding the mass qualifications 2.2. Architecture, integrating with sculpture by front ornaments 2.3. Statuesque searches in urban micro space The architecture, perceived as a statue regarding the mass qualifications, is a concept, appeared along with the Expressionism for the first time and became popular nowadays with Deconstructivism. Here the plastic characteristics of the architectural mass are at top level. The architecture is almost a statue with architectural dimension. The architecture, integrating with sculpture by front ornaments is a classification, which emerged in the trend of Post-Modernism through employment of sculpture with symbolic Qualifications at the building fronts. The sculpture, used at the front and on the building, are mostly seen in "Cartoon Architecture". This type of architecture is used often at entertainment centers, like Disneyland. Statuesque searches in urban micro space are related to create an urban concept in such regions of old cities, which are tried to be reconstructed. The best example for this category will be the Defense region of Paris. The design principles between the masses of buildings will be formed, as if these are plastic objects. The work can be much more effectual than a statue, since the scales is of architectural dimensions. xx This classification, obtained through examination of the trends in 20. century with regard of sculpture and architecture, presents that, as we come from Expressionism, one of the inital concepts of this century, until today, the architecture and the art of sculpture remarkably approach each other. Thus, it is a fact, which can't be disregarded, that the distinction between visual branches of art have been removed, espessially that sculpture and architecture are very close to each other, although the artists do not want to accept this view.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
Appears in Collections:Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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