Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16996
Title: Bina Üretiminde Denetim Ve Sorumluluk
Authors: Giritli, Heyecan
Adanır, Tunç
39241
Mimarlık
Architecture
Keywords: Bina üretimi; Binalar; Denetim
Building production ; Buildings ;Control
Issue Date: 1993
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Ülkemizde, yaşanmakta olan hızlı ve düzensiz yapılaşma, çarpık şehirleşmenin ortaya çıkmasında en büyük etken olarak gösterilmektedir. Bu çalışmanın amacı, bina üretiminde dengeyi koruyabilen, düzenleyebilen, gerekirse bazı yaptırımlarla denetimin işlerliğini sağlayabilen yaklaşımları saptamaktır. Ayrıca, denetim mekanizmasının daha etkin bir şekilde nasıl çalışacağını ve bu denetimin sonucunda, inşaat sektöründeki kalite düzeyinin oluşumuna değinilmiştir. Birinci bölümün ilk kısmında, bina üretimini denetleme amacı ile ilgili kurumların, "kamu" ve "mal sahibi" denetimi olarak sınıflandırılmasına, bunlar arasındaki sistem ve uygulama farklılığına değinilmiştir. Denetimin esas amaçları olan süre, maliyet ve kalite kriterlerinden biri olan kalite ile denetimin birlikte uygulanması ele alınmıştır. Kalite denetiminde, ilk önce konu ile ilgili kavramlara değinilmiştir. Genelde sistem olarak ülkemizde tam yerleşmemiş olmasından dolayı kavramlar, yabancı dilden dilimize uyarlanmıştır. Daha sonraki kısımlarda ise, kalite denetimini etkileyen etmenler incelenmiş, kullanıcının ve müteahhitin kalite ile olan etkileşimine değinilmiştir. Ayna kalite ile fiyat oranı, inşaat firmalarının kalite yönetimi, temini ve idaresi konuları incelenmiştir. Birinci bölümün ikinci kısmında ise sorumluluk ve sigorta konusu işlenmiştir. İlk önce sorumluluk ve sigortanın tarihsel gelişimi anlatılmıştır. Türkiye ve Kıbrıs'taki uygulama ile diğer ülkelerin uygulaması genel olarak karş ı laştı rı İm ıştır. İkinci bölümde, şantiye kalite denetimi ve sorumluluğu üzerine Kıbrıs'ta yapılan araştırma anlatılmıştır. Araştırmada kalite sorunlarının ortaya çıkış şekli ve buna neden olan organizasyon, tasarım, uygulama v.b. kriterler açısından değerlendirmenin yapılması hedeflenmiştir. Son bölümde ise, yapılan araştırmada belirli değerler elde edilmiştir. Bu değerlere dayanarak sonuç ve öneriler sunulmuştur.
Construction sector acts as the locomotive sector of the economy in our country. Due to the fact that it is the the sector which is the biggest employes in the economy it has direct and indirect effects on the other sectors. Because of this, as well as the fact that it constantly follows and implements the technological developments it has managed to retain its status as the key sector of the economy. Recent improvements in our construction industry coupled with our skilled labour has enabled our construction sector to compete abroad with foreign firms and become a major foreign currency earner. A considerable number of our local construction companies have won major tenders abroad and while carrying out these projects it has proved that it has come of age by completing them on time and at a high quality. However due to the ever rising number of the populations, ever continuing massive migrations from rural ro urban areas and resulting socio-economic changes a housing shortage has come about in the country as a whole. This housing shortage has reached chronic proportions especially in the cities due to massive and unplanned migration of the peasant masses from the rural areas to the cities. Thus an unbelievable amount of constructions have sprunp up in the cities over the last thirty years. As a result of the defects in the control mechanism in our country it has not been possible to prevent a marked disorder in the urbanisation efforts of Turkey. As a result of this unplanned cities have emerged and now we are all suffering from the after effects of the unplanned urbanisation with low quality buildings. However despite the defects of the control mechanisms in our country, consumers have become increasingly more aware of the importance of the construction quality. This increasing awareness on the part of the consumers has created a newompetition arena for the construction firms. Consumers are now taking quality into account while planning their future homes. This new compeition is for the creation of homes and other buildings at a reasonable price but with a certain level of quality which will satisfy the consumers. Analysis of the current levels of quality control and responsibility in the construction sector and their comparisons with those currently being implemented in Western countries is the main aim of this study. Due to the increasing size and complexity of construction projects and the ever increasing competitiveness in the world markets, the construction industry needs to devote particular attention to the improved quality of buildings in order to survive in this market. Quality could be achieved more easily if priority is given to the management of liability in construction. The purpose of this study is to briefly review the importance of quality in the building sites and how this quality can be assured by the contractors. In this study the importance of problem definition is emphasized. Because most of the problems can not be cured if it is not known what the problem is. In addition to this, inspections on the building sites is also a subject of this study. It is concentrated on two main titles, namely the importance of quality and inspection of the quality in the building sites. It also examines the concept of qualify and the relation between quality and the customer. The relation between contractor and the quality is also studied. Today the price of bad quality or insufficient quality at the building sites is very well known. This subject is also scrutinised and some studies about it are given as examples. The content of the chapters of the study and the results of the practices are as follows. In the first chapter of the study the issue of quality in the construction of buildings was taken as a basis and a general description of quality has been provided. It has been stated that for the inpsecting institutions the issue of inspection is divided into two sub-headings, namely " Public Inspection" and "Owner Inspection". The inspection systems applied by these two organisation have been explained and a comparison between the two has been given. Inspection is divided into three categories. These are "Period Inspection", "Cost Inspection" and "Quality Inspection". In this study emphasis has been given to the quality inspection rather than the period inspection and cost inspection. On the issue of the quality inspection concepts concerning this issue have been taken up first. As the study progressed more emphasis was given to the issues concerning quality inspection and the factors affecting the quality inspection are explained. The "Quality Inspection Hectagon" between the "Designer, drawings and specifications, constructor and contracts" are referred to as the factors influencing the quality inspection system. As the study progressed further the relationship between the user and the quality, the constructor and quality and quality and price ratio were explained. -vii- Towards the end of the first chapter a reference is also made to the "quality management". Here a description of the quality management itself and the elements which are needed for the establishment of such a management have been given. These elements are described as being the quality manuals, plans and programmes. The quality system is explained later on in the study. Quality system is divided into various sub-sections like management responsibility, organisation and company management structures. An explanation of the management system has been given and that it has been stated that the aim of the companies is not to make a profit only and that apart from making profits the companies should pay attention to ensure that quality will be maintained at a certain level. It has also been explained that the satisfaction of the customers should be given priority by the companies. The study has also pointed out that there are differing views on the organisational structures for an effective quality management. The study has explained that the first aim of the quality system is to satisfy the internal needs of the organisation. It also divides the systems established for the realisation of the aims into two different groups. These are called centralised and decentralised systems. The study also refers to the different standarts applied in various countries for quality control, and the creation and the evolution of these standarts are explained. In the ensuing parts of the study the issue of how to obtain quality is taken up and references are made to the impact of this issue on the customers. In the second part of chapter I, inspection, responsibility and insurance have been taken up and after an account of the historical evolutions of these concepts, their implementations in Turkey and Cyprus have been explained and their legal explanations have been given. It has been explained that there are two kinds of customers, one being the state sector and the other private sector. In the ensuing part of the study the implementation of inspection, responsibility and insurance in the developed countries like Germany, Belgium, USA and France have been explained and later these have been compared with their implementation in Turkey and Cyprus. In the introduction of the first chapter it has been explained that the construction sector in general divides its activities into two categories which are infrastructure and construction of buildings. It further explains that in developed countries inspection of the quality of buildings under the guidance and with the pressure of the governments and that there has been a tendency in these countries to move away from a centralised form of control and carrying out such controls and inspections by specialised private organisations. -VIII- The first chapter of the study carried on to explain that there are two methods of quality control of the contructions which are financed by the government and that these are carrying out of the quality control by one of its units if the construction in question is not too complex. The other way to control the quality in buildings financed by the government is to hire a company which specialises in quality control if the building in question is a complex one, the study explains. As for the quality control of the buildings owned by private companies and individuals, the study adds, this can be carried out by an architect or civil engineer if it is not a complicated project and if it is a complicated one than the owner or owners of the building in question can hire a specialised quality control firm. In the first chapter of the study an explanation of the concepts of timing control, cost control as well as quality control terminologies, quality concepts were given. In this chapter short explanations of what is meant by control, quality, quality assurance, quality control, quality audit, quality management, quality plan, quality policy, quality system, quality system review and needs were given with the purpose of enlightening the general readers about what exactly is meant by these concepts which are used throughout this study and to prevent any possible confusion and misunderstanding. In this chapter there is also a sub-section on factors which have a direct or indirect effect on the quality control and here there is also an explanation of the so- called "Quality Control Pentagon" system which involves the designer, drawings and specifications, builder and the construction itself. A table which expalins the workings of this system is also presented in this chapter and a table which is presented in this sub-section also gives a comparison of the various quality standarts used by the International Standarts Organisation (ISO), Europe's CEN organisation, Britain, USA, Germany and France. In the first chapter there is a sub-section on the quality management which explains that this involves all the activities carried out by a company to realise its quality policy. It goes on to state that some of these activities may be devoid of any system and that these might come about as a reaction as the events develop. However, it is stated, most of these activities follow a pre-determined routine procedures which are organised in advance. Some of these elements carries out quality control in order to eliminate non-conformity while some of them provides assurance and confidence that the standards are being implemented. This sub-section carried on to explain that there are three aims which the companies should fulfill concerning quality. These are: ensuring the continuity of the product or service, to provide confidence that the required quality in the product or service will be obtained and to create confidence within its own organisation that the targetted quality has been achieved and is continuing. -ix- The first chapter of the study continues to explain that the usual approach of the companies should be to satisfy the users or the customers, to satisfy the society and to satisfy the company itself and expands on these. In the first chapter of the study a reference is also made to the historical development of the contruction industry. It states that the first signs of professional conciliation and professional discipline were first seen during the Ancient Roman and Hellenic periods. However, the study adds that no need was felt for control and responsibility of the homes and buildings owned by the individuals while such a need was felt for buildings which concerned and were used communally like temples and bridges and roads. The concept of individual building owbership first came about under the leadership and guidance of France during the nineteenth century, explains the study and adds that communal principles concerning quality products did not come about until the present century. The study carries on to explain that the whole of industrialised world started to feel the need for a mechanism of inspection and responsibility in the construction sector since 1930s and that a further step in guaranteeing inspection and responsibility was the insurance of suitability and quality of the buildings. The study carries on to explain the legal positions and limits of responsibilioty concerning the private buildings in Turkey and Cyprus. Here the legal positions and responsibilities of the property owners, builders, local authorities, governors are explained and the various systems implemented in a number of countries namely Germany, Belgium, USA and France are given in detail. In the second chapter of the study the study carried out on quality inspection and responsibility have been explained. In the introduction of the second chapter the fact that the quality control carried out by the quality inspection teams, for instance the foremen, developers, architects, is unofficial and not put down on record and therefore very little use is being made from them is highlighted. Therefore, it has been concluded, it is very difficult to set up an effective control mechanism. Here an explanation was given about lack of information which prevents effective and realist construction quality control. The study was completed in two years and projects from both the state and private sectors have been cited as examples. These projects, a total of seven, were visited at certain periods and the study was prepared as a result of the talks carried out with the owners, architects, cosntructors, inspection personel and general staff. Detailed information has been given about all of these projects individually and an evaluation of each of them has been made further on in this study The results of the study has been backed up by a number of tables which are presented in the appendix of the study.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1993
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1993
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16996
Appears in Collections:Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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