Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16979
Title: İşletme Aşamasındaki Konutların Kullanıcı İhtiyaçları Bakımından Değerlendirilmesi Ve Tasarıma Etkisi
Other Titles: Evaluation Of User Requirements At Operation Stage Of Dwellings And Its Effects To Design
Authors: Öke, Altan
Akdoğan, Recai
55860
Mimarlık
Architecture
Keywords: Konut tasarımı
Kullanıcı gereksinimleri
Housing design
User requirements
Issue Date: 1996
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: "İşlemekte Olan Konutların Kullanıcı İhtiyaçları Bakımından Değerlendirilmesi ve Tasarıma Etkisi" adını taşıyan bu tezin temel amacı, çeşitli boyutlarıyla ülke gündemininde önemli bir yer tutan konut sorununun çözümlenmesine bir katkı sağlamaktır. Çeşitli tartışmalarda konut sorunu, sayısal eksikliği bakımından ele alınmaktadır. Problemin bir de niteliksel boyutu bulunmakta, bu konunun üzerinde ise çok az durulmaktadır. Artık ülkemiz için konut, başı sokacak çatı anlayışından uzaklaşmıştır. İnsanlar içinde yaşadıkları konutlarda, eylemlerini gerçekleştirmeye yardımcı olacak konforu da aramaktadırlar. Bu tezde, problemin niteliksel boyutu ele alınmış, konu "kullanıcı ihtiyaçları" çerçevesinde incelenmiştir. İşlemekte olan konutlarda yapılan değerlendirme çalışmaları, kullanıcı-tasanmcı iletişiminin kurulması, yeni tasarımlara rasyonel yaklaşımlar sağlanması, önceden yapılan hataların tekrarının önüne geçilmesi bakımlarından faydalar sağlamaktadır. Almanya ve İngiltere gibi gelişmiş bir çok ülkede, 1900'lü yıllardan başlayarak işlemekte olan konutlarda yapılan değerlendirme çalışmalarıyla, konut politikalarına yön verilmiştir. Aynı yaklaşımla, ülkemizde yapılacak bu tür çalışmalar, konut anlayışının belirlenmesi bakımından da yararlı olacaktır. Son yıllarda Avrupa ülkelerinde "tasarımda kullanıcı katılımı" önem kazanmıştır. 1990 Dünya Şehircilik Günü' nün de konusu kullanıcı katılımı olmuştur. İşlemekte olan konutlarda yapılacak değerlendirme çalışmaları, kullanıcı katılımının sağlanmasına da katkıda bulunacaktır. Yapılan gözlemlerden ve kullanıcılarla yapılan görüşmelerden de anlaşılacağı gibi, birçok aile yapımı yeni bitmiş konutlarda bile çeşitli ekleme ve diğişiklik eylemlerine girmektedir. Bu eylemlerin birçoğu tasarım ve üretimden kaynaklanan olumsuzlukları gidermeye yöneliktir. Bu tür çabalar aile ölçeğinden başlayarak ülke ölçeğine varan ekonomik bir yük oluşturmaktadır. Yukarıda sözü edilen olumsuzlukları önlemeye katkıda bulunmak amacıyla yapılan bu tez çalışması, 4 ana bölümden oluşmaktadır. 1. bölümde, "değerlendirme" kavramı üzerinde durulmuş ve işlemekte olan konutlarda yapılacak değerlendirme çalışmalarının önemi vurgulanmıştır. Tezin yapılış amaçları da bu bölümde açıklanmıştır. 2. bölümde, mimarlık alanında değerlendirme çalışmalarının tarihsel gelişiminden söz edilmiştir. Ayrıca mimarlık alanında, özellikle konut konusunda yapılan çalışmalara yurt içi ve yurt dışından örnekler verilmiştir. Türkiyede yapılan çalışmaların bir eleştirisi yapılmış, değerlendirme konusuyla ilgili olarak bir gelecek tahmini de bu bölümde yer almıştır. 3. bölümde, kullanıcı ihtiyaçları ve bunları etkileyen faktörler, ilgili disiplinlerin konuya bakış açısıyla incelenmiştir. İşlemekte olan konutlarda yapılacak değerlendirme çalışmalarında izlenecek işlemler dizisi, bir metot önerisi olarak bu bölümde sunulmuştur. 4. bölümde, önerilen anket seçilen konut örnekleri üzerinde uygulanmış, örnekler çerçevesinde elde edilen sonuçlar sıralanmıştır. Tezin son kısmında çalışmanın genelinden çıkarılan sonuçlar yer almıştır.
The basic aim of this thesis named "Evaluation of user requirements at operation stage of dwellings and it's effects to designs", is to help find solutions to the housing problems which exist in Turkey. An evaluation study prepared for this purpose is the scope of this thesis. The terms "value" and "evaluation" are used not only daily but are also used in scientific studies. Philosophers have emphasized these terms more than scientists. The term "value" owes it's current meaning to the great philosophical success of the 19th century. The concept of evaluation in architecture can be defined as "bringing up the benefits and harms of a process or a period and deteimination of the implementation criteria consequently". There are two types of basic activities in architecture. The first one takes place through the design period and the second in product evaluation. This thesis deals with the latter, considering the limit of user requirements. Studies considering quantity have not reached a satisfactory level in Turkey. In the operation stage, the designers are only called for because of some defects, but the architects without waiting to be called for this way, they apply a periodic control system to prevent drawbacks at the operation stage, collect information and gain experience for new designs. Evaluation studies made in the operating stage of houses help user/designer interaction. IX Housing demand is tried to be fulfilled by mass housing projects in Turkey as in every country. In this kind of production, because the users are not sure of then requirements in the beginning, their needs can not be satisfied through design sufficiently. In order to overcome this drawback, living styles of inhabitants should be determined and some common points among those should be found. Most of the families make some additions and modifications before moving into their accommodation. This results in economic disadvantages spreading economically beginning from the family to the country scale, because remodelling a new house results in building material waste. Some changes are also seen in human behaviour parallel to the scientific and technologic developments. These changes lead to requirements of new data for design. Changes in housing concept and dwelling production methods could be traced through a some ten thousand year period starting from the ancient times to the industrial revolution, but today it is possible to notice these changes within very short periods. As a result, house design of today forms a small part of total design. Scientists emphasize that new methods are necessary in order to solve the complexity of house design. Product variety brought forth by industrial production, obligations the necessity that these products should have a definite quality and the necessity of exploiting limited sources, led to improvement of methods of evaluation. Some of these methods have also been in use for architectural design. In many developed countries like Germany and England, evaluation studies were made for houses in use before starting mass housing construction that needed great investments. These countries have aligned their accommodative policies with the data obtained from evaluation studies. A. Klein, G. Meyers- Ehlers, M. Wagner are the ones who have made such studies in Germany. In England, researcher T.A. Markus from Strathclyde University, School of Architecture and Building Science, has also made similar evaluation studies. In Turkey, some researchers made studies about house evaluation. The "design criteria lists" complied under the leadership of Prof. Dr. Altan Öke from the Faculty of Architecture of the Technical University of Istanbul (I.T.U.) can be used in evaluation studies. Another researcher, N. Ağat, has made evaluation studies on the houses which have been built after 1953 in the northwest Germany. Although Ağat has observed houses from the point of view of urbanization, the subject has mainly been an investigation about the functionality of the houses. Ağat' s study has been published by the Faculty of Architecture of I.T.U in 1974. A. Atasoy has made evaluation studies about the effects of changing social and individual needs. Atasoy' s study has been published by the Faculty of Architecture of I.T.U. in 1973. Architect S. Esemen has made similar obvervations on a single house in Istanbul, Göztepe. N. Esin-A. Özsoy have also made some studies in Ataköy mass housing settlement for 893 dwellings. In the observations made by them in 1988, - Settlement features, - User features, - Features belonging to house units and house blocks, - Space utilization in house units, have been of great importance. Elasticity and changebility terms have been emphasized in the houses with two bedrooms in Ataköy mass housing settlements. XI In this thesis, occupied houses are evaluated from the point of view of user requirements. Because user requirements are composed of the least characteristics that should be in a dwelling, it is thought that this should be taken as a basis in evaluating houses. User requirements and the factors affecting these are involved in various disciplines like psychology, sociology and physiology. In this study user needs and the factors affecting these are presented from the point of view of above disciplines and architectural practices. In this study, questionnaires are used for; - Determination of targets in housing design. - Determination of the processes of the study.. Listing of the subjects that will be observed.. Preparing the questionnaires.. Determinating the principals of questionnaire application. - Finding the results. Questionnaires in this study are applied to inhabitants in 68 houses. These houses are selected from the groups of: - Houses built as a result of cooperation, - Houses built by contractors, - Houses of which their architect and inhabitants are known. It is possible to arrange the results of questionnaires generally as below; - There are 3 occupants per house in average, - Approximately half of the occupants are owners, - Half of the families have chosen another room other than the living room for daily use, -Approximately all of the families prefer to eat in the kitchen, xu - The number of people who use the balconies are veiy small, - Modifications in order to make better use of the house is frequent, - Nearly all of the families have complained from the lack of noise insulation, - The inhabitants except the ones living in the apartment block of which it's architect and inhabitants are familiar, have complained about having insufficient parking area, - In some of the houses there was good designer-user-builder communication. In these houses, satisfaction of user requirements is very high. The general results of this thesis can be outlined as follows; - In many developed countries before the mass housing investment, evaluation studies are made for the houses which are occupied and the data supplied is used in order to define housing policies. Similar approach will also be useful in Turkey from the point of view of both the user and the constructor. - User requirements and the factors effecting these are related to various disciplines such as psychology, sociology and physiology. Merging the information obtained from the studies of those disciplines with those of the architectural studies, it will be possible to produce information which could be used as a basis for design works. - User participation in design, experienced in developed countries during the recent years, could be implemented in Turkey by means of evaluation studies of occupied dwellings. - Participation of users in design will in turn lead to satisfactory final products which is evidentally observed within the scope of this study.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16979
Appears in Collections:Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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