Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16976
Title: Tasarım Sürecinde Mimar Müşteri İlişkilerinin İncelenmesi : Türkiye Örneği
Other Titles: Architect - Client Relationships In The Design Process With Reference To Türkiye Conditions
Authors: Uluoğlu, Belkıs
Ökmen, Mehmet Ayhan
55740
Mimarlık
Architecture
Keywords: Mimari tasarım
Architectural design
Issue Date: 1996
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Yapılan tez çalışması, meslek pratiğinde tasarımcı olarak çalışan mimarların tasanm süreci içinde müşteri ilişkilerini kurma ve yürütme şekillerinin tanımlanmasına yöneliktir. Çalışma kapsamında, mimarların inşaat sektörü içindeki konumlan, mimann kimliğinin müşteri ilişkilerine etkileri, müşterilerin mimara yaklaşımı, süreç içinde mimarla müşteri arasında çıkan anlaşmazlıklar ve meslek pratiğinde üretilen çözümlerin tespit edilmesi hedeflenmiştir. Tez çalışması, altı ana bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölümde konuya giriş yapılmış, tezin amacı ve kapsamı açıklanmıştır. İkinci bölümde, tarihsel süreç içinde mimar kişiliğinin gelişimi, toplum yaşamı ve inşaat sektörü içindeki yeri ile müşteri ilişkileri günümüzdeki durumla birlikte incelenmiştir. Üçüncü bölüm tasanm süreci içinde mimarla birlikte yer alan grupların, mimarlık bürolarının ve yasal dentleyicilerin tanıtılması, mimann bu gruplarla süreç içi ilişkileri ve bu ilişkilerin müşteri ilişkilerine etkilerini kapsamaktadır. Dördüncü bölümde, müşteri kişiliği tanıtılmış, farklı müşteri tipleri, mimarla ilişkileri, süreç içindeki yerleri, mimar - müşteri arasında yaşanan sorunlar ve üretilen çözümler, ilişkilerin yasal ve ahlaki boyutları ve tasanm süreci sonunda ortaya çıkan ürünün taraflar açısından değerlendirilmesi konulan incelenmiştir. Beşinci bölümde, meslek pratiğinde müşteri ilişkilerinin yürütülme biçimlerinin tespit edilmesine yönelik olarak gerçekleştirilen saha araştırmasının amaçlarının, kapsamının, yönteminin ve aşamalarının tanıtılması ile araştırma bulgularının açıklanması ve değerlendirilmesi yer almaktadır. Altıncı bölümde ise yapılan tez çalışmasının sonuçlan, elde edilen sonuçlann değerlendirilmesi ve sonuçlardan yararlanmaya yönelik öneriler yer almaktadır.
This thesis aims to define the relationships between the architect and the client in the design process, with reference to Türkiye conditions. In architectural practice, client relationships are established in different ways by different architects. Client relations can be effected and differentiated by the architect's personal qualities such as career.experience, degree of expertise, fame, references, fee, working system, etc. In addition, project's qualify and the client's identitiy are reasons which differentiate the relations in the process. In this research, those reasons are defined through theoretical framework based on relevant literature and observations in architectural offices. The thesis consists of six main chapters. Chapter 1 In the first chapter, the socio - economical conditions of the architectural profession in Türkiye are explained, and the necessity of research on this subject is discussed. Chapter 2 In this chapter, first, the architects' general position in society, working conditions, clients, architect - client relationships are reviewde within historical perspective and in different cultures and civilizations. Different examples are discussed such as architects that worked for state, religious associations and wealthy groups along the historical process. Secondly, today's Turkish architect is examined concerning his status in society, professional conditions and legal aspects that define the profession and architect - client relations. Finally, future's architect, his possible competitors, working conditions and problems are predicted. Chapter 3 This section contains description of technical groups and legal inspectors who are participating in the design process and their effects on architect - client relations. The design process has necessiated complex and more professional relations today due to technological novelties, new areas of expertise and economical conditions. As a result of these developments, responsibilities that an architect undertakes in the design process and the profession's organizational structure has changed in order to meet the new generation of demands of the client. Various technical groups and experts took place in the design process as a result of technological novelties and "project management'' has developed as a new concept for the architectural profession. Architectural offices were restructured as a result of these developments. In this study,architectural offices in Türkiye are classified in three different groups at the organisational level, which are as follows:. Architectural office as a department of the public organization.. Architectural offices as a deparment of private sector organization.. Private architectural offices. In the public sector, architectural offices work for public designs in order to meet the demand public organizations. These offices are not studied in depth here, due to purposes set forth in the research. Private sector organizations have architectural offices as department depending on their areas of specialization and their scale and organizational structure. These offices have more dynamic working conditions than offices of public organizations. Private architectural offices are the most dynamic among other organizational forms of architectural offices due to their working conditions and their flexible structure. Client relations are held more identified, clear and densitively than other organizational forms of offices. Private offices can be structured in terms of specialization areas, staff and capacity. Along the design process, members of different professions join the design team depending on their expertise, such as different engineering groups, city planners, interior architects, landscape architects, investment advisers, real estate experts, etc. In addition, legal inspectors, especially municipalities, take place in the design process. The architect has to coordinate all these groups and their inter-group relations, and also has to create a harmonious working conditions in order to meet the client's demands on time, completely and faultlessly. In this section, architect's relations with these contractor groups, problems lived between the architect and those groups and solutions developed in practice are determined and discussed. Chapter 4 In the fourth section, relations between the architect and the client within the design process are discussed. In the first part of this chapter, the definition of the client is stated, and in the second part various client types are grouped in terms of factors explaining different characteristics of the client in Türkiye conditions, which are: XI . Private sector as the client,. Public sector as the client. In the former case, the client may be commercial firms at various scales such as cartels, banks, companies and cooperatives as well as personal enterprise. In the latter the client is usually the state, municipalities, army or social organizations. Generally, private sector's architecture relations have less bureaucracy than public sector's, in Türkiye conditions. Degrees of architect - client relationships are defined in the third part including client's preference criterias when choosing an architect, initial meeting policies and negotiations in the design process. First, client's criterias when choosing the architect is defined. In practice, the preference of an architect depends on five different criteria, which are:. Recommendation of others,. Portfolio,. Degree of expertise,. Bidding,. Architectural project competitions. Second, architect's and client's meetings in order to understand each other are defined. When architect and client meet, their efforts center around trying to asses and understand one another. They send and pick up messages indicating what the rest of the design process holds in store. Each presents himself in terms of general characteristics such as taste, integrity, flexibility and attitudes toward architecture. In addition, more specific information is offered about the project at hand: budget, program and schedule. Finally, negotiations established in the process between the architect and the client in order to make decisions about the project, are explained. Negotiations can be changed as a result of client's qualities, such as identify, organizational structure, person or association, public or private sector, etc. In addition, negotiations are effected by the architects working system, personality, expertise and career. Negotiations are established in two different ways in the design process. These are,. Face to face relations between the client and the architect,. Client's advisers and managers - architect relationships. In the first case, negotiations are established between the architect and the client individually. Both architect's and client's social status and their identify are effective reasons in convincing the other side. If the client is a private or public sector organization, second case is established in negotiations, in order to discuss the project. This kind of a negotiations is differentiated in two ways because of client's qualities: XII Negotiations are held between the architect and department chief officials. Here, the density of the bureaucracy is at the top level because of the governing status. If the client is a private association, negotiations depend on client's qualities such as scale, capacity, working areas and organizational structure and can be established at different levels. For instance, department heads and vice presidents are comissioned by large scale firms in order to influence the architect, and get the leadership in the design process. On the other hand, in the mid -scale firms, architect relations can be regulated by patrons. In the fourth chapter, client's active contribution and influences on the process are explained in the fourth part. The client is a natural member of the design process, as a person who initiates the process by demanding a service and pays the architect's fee. In addition, the client is affected from the outcome as a user or investor. For such reasons, the client wants to dominate the process altough he lacks a sufficient knowledge of that process. The client usually participates in the negotiations at the beginning of the process as an active participant, to declare his requirements and demands about the project designed. Later, negotiations are held from architect in order to explain the project's sketches to the client who has a passive role. The following chapter contains definition of problems in architect - client relations and solutions developed in Türkiye conditions. The architect - client relationship is a temporary partnership, for different aims in a limited time. Both parties struggle in the process, in order to realize their own aims which create specific problems. Problems are created because of the participant's natural characteristics or individual specialities. The design process is a system which requires the participants' harmonius work for an expensive purpose like the building construction. For this reason, all participants have to consider general stakes more than individual stakes. All problems are solved mutual understanding, moderate dialogs and compensations in practice. Architect - client relations are defined in terms of laws in the sixth chapter. Architect's and client's equivalent rights and responsibilities, legal restrictions and their effects on the process relations are explained in this chapter. The following part defines the ethical dimension of achitect - client relations. Architect's and client's attitudes, common beliefs and non - written rules of the profession are defined. At the end of the fourth chapter, evaluation of the results are defined in terms of architect and client. The results are evaluated by architects' various criterias: Career, new work opportunities, client satisfaction, expertise, popularity and high price. On the other hand, client evaluates the outcomes as an investor. XIII Chapter 5 In this chapter, the survey that is realized in the offices of architects is introduced. The survey aims to define architect- client relations in practice by means of interviews. For this purpose, different architect types are examined who are working as designers, practising client relations either as patron or partner in their practice, have different scales and organizational structures. At the end of this research, seven different stereotypes architects are defined, who work in Türkiye conditions as designers. The interviews comprised three groups of questions. The first group focuses on the description of the works including his working conditions, staff, staff policy, relations with engineers. The second group aims to discover the nature of relations between the architect and the client. This group consists of questions, such as methods for structuring the relations, client policies, client as repetitive or new, evaluation criterias of the client, contact ways and negotiations. The final group of questions are interested in the problems and solutions developed in practice and evaluations of the results for architects. At the end of the interview, architects are asked for a general evaluation of their practice, such as their general position in the sector and in society, changing demands of clients, and predictions for the future. Research findings are evaluated in two ways. The first evaluation is handles different architect types and their practices individually in order to define different practices. The second evaluation is made for an analysis of general characteristics of the architect- client relations. In general, client relations are defined by architects as " It depends." Chapter 6 In this chapter, the architect - client relationships are discussed in Türkiye conditions. Research findings are introduced in terms of participants' influences on the process seperately who are participating in design process introducing architect, client, technical groups and legal inspectors. The thesis concludes with made evaluations in terms of professional practice and architectural education.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16976
Appears in Collections:Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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