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|Title:||Akıllı Bina Üretim Sürecinde Proje Temin Yaklaşımlarının İncelenmesi|
|Other Titles:||Analysis Of Project Procurement Approaches In Construction Of Intelligent Buildings|
Intelligent buildingsProject management
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science and Technology
|Abstract:||Teknoloji hayatımıza tamamıyla yayılmıştır ve en yeni olana karşı doymak bilmez hırsımız bizi daha büyük keşiflere zorlamaktadır. Toplumlardaki gelişmenin en büyük göstergelerinden biri de endüstrileşme sürecinde katedilen mesafedir. Bu süreç farklı organizasyonları içermekte ve herbiri diğerini etkilemektedir. Tıpkı bir lokomotif vazifesi gören inşaat sektörü gibi. Büyük istihdam gücüne sahip oluşu, farklı endüstri dallarından farklı sistemleri ve disiplinleri birarada bulunduruşu, onu, yönlendirici bir /güç haline getirmiş hatta bir devletin ekonomisinin en büyük göstergelerinden, bir ulusun en büyük prestij kaynaklarından biri yapmıştır. Öncü bir sektör oluşu, birçok yeniliği ve buna bağlı olarak yüksek teknoloji girdilerini bünyesine almaya zorlar. Endüstri alanında genellikle yüksek teknolojiyi bilgisayarlar, robotlar vb. ile anarken mimaride ise bazen bir stil olarak kabul ederiz. Bir anlamda, teknolojinin vücut bulduğu en güzel, kalıcı ve bütünleşik örnekler, yüksek teknoloji yani "high-tech" diye adlandırdığımız binalardır. "Hıgh-tech" binaları bir dönemin mimari anlayışıyla bütünleştirmeye çalışırken, bugün dünya literatüründe yer alan ve evrensel bir anlayışa kavuşmuş başka tanımlara rastlamaktayız. Günümüz sofistike binaları akıllı anlamına gelen "intelligent", Amerika'da ise yine aynı anlamdaki "smart" sözcükleri ile bağdaştınlmaktadır. Bu türden yapılar, kullanıcılarına konforlu bir çevre ve esnek kullanım imkanları sağlamakla beraber, özellikle ticari bir kimlik taşımakta ise, sahiplerinin bir prestij kaynağı olmak yolunda geliştirilmektedirler. Çağdaş yapım teknikleri ile gerçekleştirilen bu binalar, dizayn aşamasından kullanıma kadar çok çeşitli altsistemler ile bunların tasarım ve üretimini üstlenen disiplinleri uyum içinde biraraya getirmekte ve son derece titiz bir çalışmayı gerektirmektedirler. Bu derece kompleks ve ölçek itibarıyla son derece büyük olan böyle bir çalışma çoğu kez geleneksel yönetim metodlannın dışına çıkmakta, yenilikçi organizasyonel yöntemlere kapılarım açmakta, gerek inşaat sürecine kazandırdığı hız ve mali kazançlar gerek etkin enerji kullanımı ve gerekse kullanıcıları olan bizlere sağladığı imkanlar açısından emsal teşkil etmektedir. Bu çalışma, yirmibirinci yüzyıl insanının kaçınılmaz şekilde ihtiyaç duyduğu ve modem teknolojinin sağladığı avantajlardan faydalanan konforlu yaşama ve çalışma mekanlarına sahip günümüz "akıllı binalar"ımn üretim sürecinde geçerli olan proje temin (teslim) sistemlerini organizasyonel yaklaşımlar, maliyetin belirlenme biçimi, sürecin strüktürü ve risk faktörleri açısından irdelemektedir|
Technology pervades our lives and affects the form and performance of the built environment, our heedless, insatiable passion for the newest makes us to find out new technologies. One striking point is periods of national prosperity are usually associated with high levels of construction activity. One is the natural result of the other. The nineteenth century was one of the most technically inventive centuries. It witnessed the application of new techniques and of new mechanical means in virtually every human activity. Revolutionary methods of buildings with wood were developed in the 1830s to meet the demands for speedy construction and to overcome the shortage of skilled labor. Cast iron was developed into a building material lighter and more adaptable than masonry and combined with other inventions, notably the elevator, paved the way for tall buildings unprecedendent not only for height but also ease of construction. Bold use of modern construction methods and structural materials became common. The building and construction industry saw the advent of new forms of structural and other materials which allowed greater scope for aesthetic expression and innovation. The construction industry plays a basic role on the national scene. Not only touches the lives of everyone but also occupies a fundamental position in the national economy. It is heterogeneous and enormously complex. There are several major classifications of construction that differ markedly from each other: housing, non residential building, heavy, highway, utility and industrial. Construction work is accomplished by contractors who vary widely in size and work type performed. General contractors assume broad responsibility for a comprehensive work package, while sub-contractors limit their endeavors to a particular aspect of the project. Construction projects are intricate and time-consuming undertakings. The total development of a project normally consists of several phases requiring a diverse range of specialized services. In progressing from initial planning to project completion, the typical job passes through successive and distinct stages that demand inputs from such disparate directions as financial organizations, governmental agencies, engineers, architects, lawyers, insurance and surety companies, contractors and building tradesmen. During the construction process itself, even a structure of modest proportions involves many skills, materials and literally hundreds of different operations. IX As a consequence of these circumstances, construction projects are typified by their complexity and diversity and by the nonstandardized nature of their production. With the passage of time, buildings are becoming more complex living environments that need to respond to changing circumstances. New demand on office buildings have become apparent through the increasing use of information technology. Today, almost every new building design has to accommodate higher levels of servicing than before to support communication, energy management, fire and security protection systems. Now we are entering a new age. This is the era of technology in relation with higher expectations. In the area of industry we assume the term "high-tech" as computers, robotics, telecom systems etc. In architecture we accept this term sometimes as a style of architecture and sometimes a kind of building that integrates various advanced technologic materials and systems. High-tech architecture is expression of technology and its characteristic materials are metal and glass. We can see the most beautiful and progressive samples of technology in such buildings. Some people say that high-tech is no more than a hybrid between offices and industrial buildings. Definition of a high-tech building depends on who you are talking to and considered three such view points. First one is architect, second is mechanical-electrical engineer and the last one is user. One striking point is that attempt to define a high-tech building produce a bewildering range of answers. There seems to be considerable doubt if high-tech is the right term to use. Other labels for today's sophisticated buildings include "intelligent" and what is probably the American equivalent "smart". Changes in the size and shape of buildings during the 1960s also presaged the advent of intelligent buildings. Attempt to define an intelligent building have not met with universal acceptance. However, the most quoted definition is that given by the "Intelligent Building Institution in Washington". "An intelligent building is one which integrates various systems to effectively manage resources in a coordinated mode to maximize: occupant performance, investment and operating cost savings and flexibility." This term was first used in the USA as recently as 1981 and it was also in that country that what is probably the world's first intelligent building was completed in 1983, by Technologies Corporation in Hartford, Connecticut. Such buildings are now completed and running in many countries. Acceptance of the intelligent buildings seems only a matter of time. It means, it is evolution rather than revolution that has led to the emergence of the new generation of buildings. An intelligent building should be flexible and able to adapt to the changing need of users. Flexibility of office usage is also being largely ignored. There is simple answer to the problem. "Don't over service today but know how to enhance tomorrow-thereby saving money now and in the future". To achieve this it is vital to turn away from the perceived requirement that building design is the vocation of the architect alone, with some help from structural engineers and surveyors and move to a more integrated approach at the earliest opportunity. This approach must include a wide spread of engineering, operational and general management skills in relation with an effective communication system or infrastructure. All communication systems or infrastructures are people dependent and technology is one of the tools used to make it easier, or so we are led to believe. The proper use of technology is to be welcomed, but in the construction industry it needs to be stressed that, from project conception to practical completion, professionals and technologists are involved and there are still problems of communication, at whatever level of technology is used. After practical completion, building users are expected to understand and operate the multiple systems designed into the building, ail of which form part of the hierarchy of the communication infrastructure. Overall communication infrastructure will be correct only if it commences at the pint where the brief for the building is being determined and then covers the requirements upto and beyond beneficial occupation. One of the most challenging demands of the intelligent building revolution is the problem translating a design into a mechanical or electrical system that meets everyone's expectations for comfort, efficiency and operability. The traditional building design and construction procedure is a disjointed process in which design and construction are accomplished almost completely independently from one another. This approach has worked in the past because designers and contractors enjoyed a fundamental common understanding of how the components of a building operate. It İs important that some improvements to the design and construction process be initiated because the industry is under increased pressure to provide improved comfort and environmental quality and to be certain that improved paths for operational flexibility are incorporated in building designs. Such complex and large buildings from conception to operation stage require a greater engineering and architectural effort than traditional ones. This kind of effort point out the progressive management and organizational methods. Several building technologies and practices have emerged in recent years as alternatives to traditional design and construction in meeting cost, time and quality goals of owners and contractors. To improve the success of buildings education and greater awareness of the problems, during design, installation and operation stage and care is needed during this whole production process and normally in project procurement process. There are a number of procurement systems in use and essential differences between these procurement methods. These differences are based on: 1) The roles and relationships of the specialists used, XI 2) The arrangements for determining the cost of the project and identifying the contractor to contribute to the design, 3) The process structure adopted including such aspects the overlap of design and construction, 4) Details including İn the conditions of contract such as provisions. New organizational methods are becoming used in recent years to reduce both time and money and to provide high-quality structures. A number of methods are available to organize the design and construction of projects. Each method has both positive and negative features. In different projects we accept different organizations. It depends on characteristics of product, qualification of contractors/sub-contractors and the other participants. There are three forms of basic organizational approaches such as; programmed, professional and problem solving organizations. Each basic form has got its own sub-organizations: design+build, design+build+management or separate responsibility of each of these disciplines. In recent years the design+build proposal have become in common use. The objectives of maximizing the degree of technical factors and maximizing the cost are in conflict. In traditional approaches, part of the reason for difficulties in the design process is the design team organization. This organization is aimed at fixing a minimum number of centers of responsibility and pursuing the various activities in a hierarchical structure. Instead of employing a hierarchical one the new TIE (Total Involvement Engineering) approach envisions that the team concept be extended to all associated with the building construction project. The design team has to decentralize its efforts and encourage designers to work more autonomously. This decentralization is inevitable and necessary. Because for the design team leader it is increasingly difficult to control all the activities for which he or she is responsible. This is the wheel concept and it recognizes that when advanced technology systems are employed, a more coordinated effort by the major players is imperative. The methods and terms of the procurement systems will have an effect upon the budget and the confidence in the budget. In production of the buildings employing advanced technology systems may be it will be greater difficult to predict their facility and their costs. This uncertainty orients us to use new procurement methods. Advanced technologies have got unpredictable character and we have some difficulties about estimating the cost of total construction. In this situation, may be we have to use more changeable procurement systems. Economy is one of the most important factors to choose the right system. Determining the cost is based on contractual arrangements. There are a number of arrangement but only a few methods are in common use. These are lump sum, cost plus and unit price approaches. In lump sum, all design works (final working drawings, specifications and documents) are prepared by the design team for the future building. A contractor is then chosen and a price determined, either by xn competitive tendering or by negotiation and a contract signed. The building is then constructed. In the cost plus arrangement, the contractor or contractors are paid the cost of the work completed plus a fee. It is now mainly used when construction must be carried out so quickly that design can not be completed for the whole project before work commences. In unit price approach, we use certain prices for each item of the project. But the unpredictable character of advanced technologies may eliminate this approach. To define a certain price is difficult for intelligent buildings' systems. To define a contractor is another viewpoint. A prime contractor is selected by the owner on the basis of competitive bidding, negotiation or some combination of the two. When selecting a contractor that will construct a complex building, it can be advantageous for an owner to negotiate a contract for its project with a preselected contractor or small group of contractors. By these improvements it is aimed to accelerate the design and construction process. Traditionally field construction has not been started until the design team has completed and finalized the design. Difficulty and time consuming undertaking character of such buildings run into a new process out of traditional one. It is possible to reduce the total design-construction time required for some projects by starting the construction before the total design has been accomplished. Usually we have to think design and site activities in parallel and this is fast-tracking. This accelerated process saves many of time. It may cause greater costs but we must weigh this situation against inflationist effects. To some authors fast-tracking is possible under a design+build contract, the owner may well have the beneficial use of the structure. This study recognizes that production of intelligent buildings need greater effort than before. To construct an intelligent building in a short time, in an optimum cost and at maximum quality, mis-interpretation of needs and solutions should be minimized or eliminated. To success this, an effective communication system has to be developed. Progressive organizational methods in relation with contractual arrangements will have to be in common use. Defining cost will have to be in parallel with these arrangements, and process will be in a structure that will run after the technical improvements. Clients must be as quick as possible to choose the technical equipments to accelerate the process. Also, the consumers and operation staff have to be in the production process. The sub-systems of buildings, especially electrical and mechanical systems have to be solved to provide users performance. Both users and operation staff can help to success it, by using their experiences.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996|
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
|Appears in Collections:||Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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