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|Title:||Antik Döşeme Mozaiklerinde Bordür Motifleri|
|Other Titles:||The Border Motifs Of The Ancient Mosaic Pavements|
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science and Technology
|Abstract:||Antik döşeme mozaiklerinde bordur motiflerinin konu alındığı bu çalışma, beş ana bölüm şeklinde düzenlenmiştir. Roma İmparatorluğu tarihi ve coğrafi sınırları hakkında kısaca bilgi verildikten sonra mozaik konusuna girilmiş, döşemede bordürün yeri anlatılarak yine bu bölümde bu konudaki yayınlar ve çalışmanın çerçevesi ve amacı anlatılmıştır. İkinci bölümde Roma Dönemi'nde mozaik sanatının yeri ve gelişimi incelenmiştir. Uygulanan teknikler ile mozaik sanatının ortaya çıkması ve gelişimi dönem ve bölgelere göre kısaca belirtilmiştir. Üçüncü bölüm katalog şeklinde hazırlanmıştır. Döşeme mozaiklerinin bordürlerinde yer alan motiflerin betimlemeleri ve örnek listeleri, motiflerin İngilizce, Fransızca ve Almanca literatürdeki karşılıklarıyla birlikte sunulmuştur. Motiflerin kökenleri, bölgelere göre dağılımı ve gelişiminin ele alındığı dördüncü bölüm değerlendirme bölümüdür. Bunun ardından özet bir sonuç bölümü gelmektedir. Bu çalışma hazırlanırken kitaplık imkânları dahilinde ulaşılabilen çeşitli türdeki kaynaklar taranarak öncelikle Roma Dönemi'ne ait tüm bölgelerdeki malzeme toplanmaya çalışılmış, eldeki bu malzemelere dayanarak motiflerin gelişim çizgilerinin izlenmesi amaçlanmıştır. Birçoğu için öneri niteliğini taşıyan isimler aranmıştır. Motiflerin başka alanlardaki benzerleriyle karşılaştırmalar sonucu etkileşimin hangi yönde olduğunun tespiti hedeflenmiş ve bu amaçla, özellikle mimarî konuda birçok kaynağa başvurulmuştur. Bu tür bir araştırma motiflerin kökenlerinin saptanmasına da yardımcı olmuştur.|
In this study in which the border motifs of mosaic pavements during Roman period is being considered, the classification of the motifs, their distribution among the regions and their development between 1st and 6th centuries have been examined. In the first part where a general introduction to the subject is made, a brief study of Roman history and the definitions of mosaic and border motifs of the mosaic pavements are stated. The aim and the precedure of the study, and the publications about this subject are also stated in this introductory part. The art of mosaics in the Roman period and its development, forms the topic and the title of the second part. In this section, the materials and the tecniques which were used, appearance of mosaic art, first specimens, its development and position during Hellenistic and Roman period are explained. Mosaic is pavement decoration which is formed by putting small portions of stones, marbles, pebbles, vitrous paste and terra-cottas portially in the mortar. By using different colours of material, various compositions can be formed. During Roman period, mosaic is a kind of pavement especially seen frequently in houses and villas. Although the first specimens of this art were back to fourth millenium B.C. in Mesopotamia. In Anatolia, we can see the first specimens of mosaic pavements in Gordion. But the origin as tecniques and style of the Roman mosaics are the Hellenistic samples. The widely used tecnique during Roman period is the opus tessellatum The decided composition was formed by the tesserae which were cut in cube shape. Less widespread tecniques opus vermiculatum and opus signinum can also be seen on Roman mosaics. Mosaic pavement specimens are found in the center and in the provinces of the Roman Empire, which was founded in Rome as a canton of Latium and whic had spread onto the whole of the Europe and Mediterranean. There is distinction between the pavements of the Eastern Mediterranean and Western ones. One of most important centers of the mosaic art is Antioch on the Orontes (Hatay) which has given out high quality material between second and sixht century. XVM The third part of the study is a catalogue section in which motif descriptions and exemples lists are stated. A detailed classification which cannot be found in the previous publications is present in this part. In the chronological example lists, the city where the mosaic was found, the name of the building it belongs, its date and its origin are stated. One of the problems faced in this study is that there is no settled therminology in Turkish about this subject. In this part, the names of the motifs were given in three foreign languages, so they are up to comments and discussions. Motif groups and their variations in the catalogue section are as fallows: Straigth listel borders like flat band are sometimes borders all alone, and sometimes they are lines that separate other borders with motifs which are not a whole border. The straigth overtopping listels forming small angles at the corners are caracteristic for the Antioch pavements. Sea waves, are probably most common decorative motifs on Roman pavements. This motif was widely used in every region beginning from Hellenistic period, and the apparence of the motif is so early. Also the guilloches, just like sea waves, is an old and long lasting motif. On the mosaic pavements especially two or three strand guilloches are mostly found both as inner and outer borders and especially they are seen on Eastern Mediterranean, North Africa, and Anatolia specimens. Poly-strands guilloches look like mattings and they seem as surface motifs more than linear motifs. All variations of guilloches are polychromes. Another motif group which is frequently used in eastern regions is the ribbon. The pattern is variated with the addition of the other motifs like leafs, fruits or lotus. The most widespread type is the simple ribbon. It was used both as the inner border framing the inner panels, and as the outher border surrounding the whole pavement, from second century upto the Late Roman period. Other types of ribbon which were used more realistically appeared on later times and they were used only at some regions. The most extensive motive group of the Roman mosaics borders are the geometric motifs. Crowstep, diamond, four-pointed star, intersecting circles, grid of bands, geometric panels with lozenges and circles, octagons and their variations form the geometirc motif group. Crowstep, which had triangles touching one another on the corner, was used frequently, in every Roman cite, during the period. It's rarely seen that they surroud one pavement all, they were used, most commonly with other SIX borders with other patterns, and sometimes on two sides of a serie like sea wawes or meander. Checkerboard pattern is one that the squares of two different colours, mostly black and white, are arranged alternately one on another and one after another. Four-pointed star is one of the all-over patterns that can be continued and cover large areas. The stars formed by combination of four triangles are put one after another and a serie is formed. Another all-over pattern is he intersecting circles. A linear section of the intersecting circles forming quadrofoils compositions is used for the border decoration. Grid of bands, is also an all-over pattern and it can be ranged in the border area at different positions. Motif is formed by perpendicularly intersecting bands and on these bands or between them are the simple geometric motifs like square, hour-glass placed diagonally. Square and rectangle panels formed a serie, being used one after another and used on borders. They were varied by thin or thick lines and in perspective. Inside them were the lozenges or geometric motifs like circles or pastoral scenes with bird figures. One border type from this group is the panels with masks which were surrounded by architectural motifs and these cannot be considered as border motifs. Among the geometric motifs, octagons are the most varied motif. These are also all-over patterns covering the carpet, as well as the borders. Although in two group there are many different types, most of them are the motifs that are adjacent octagon compositions. Another important and varied motif group is the meanders. They have,"U", "T, simple, swastika, key pattern types. Among these, swastika meander is te most common meander type on Roman mosaic pavements. Architecture originated motifs are very important in decoration of the mosaic pavements in Roman period. Cable, egg-and-tongue, bead-and-reel, dentils, dentils in perspective, consoles, ashlar pattern, turreted wall, city gate and arcade are the motifs adorning the Roman mosaics borders. The convex band was never used alone, it was a motif always seen with the other motifs. The convex aspect was made by the replacement of the stones diagonally and by the change in colour from darker to lighter from the sides to the center. XX Egg-and-tongue, imitated unchanged from the architecture was used sometimes realistic and sometimes it was described as stylised. Bead-and-reel, just like the previous one, is a arhcitectural ornamental element and was reflected from architecture to mosaic decoration. Dentils, a usable motifs for the borders, can be used both without perspective, two dimentional, and in perspective, three dimentional. On a wide region, dentils, without perspective not alone, but with some other borders was used mostly as inner border, on the coffered pavements. Dentils in perspective are from another effect. It was described like the sight of the dentils at architecture from under and side, and the direction of the perspective changes in the middle. Another motif imitated from architecture is the console frieze. Just like one type of the dentils, they are described with perspective. Ashlar pattern, although not often seen, are seen on mosaic borders. A isodomos wall is traced with simple lines. Turreted city wall, is a motif of towers and city wall embroidered with silhouette. Sometimes on the points on the middle axes of the pavements present the city gates. City gates can also be seen on the thresholds. The last architectural motif is the arcade. It is the facade view of a arcade. Mostly seen ones of the vegetable motifs are taken into this set of study. These are lotus, ivy, laurel, vine and acanthus. From these ones, vine and acanthus rinceau are more complex and they are varied and used more than the others. The fourth part of the study, is the search of the origins of this motifs and it is an estimation part, taking consideration of the exemple lists in the third part, and the aim is to state the development and distribution. Here, step by step every motif is examined individually. They are very varied both by shape and by origin. Although most of the motifs are old motifs that are used in different areas, they had many changes and they had new explorations during Roman period. Straight borders, alone or one next to another, surrounding the pavement are caracteristics for Italian mosaics. The overtopping listels forming small angles at the corners and can be interpreted as the imitation of the wooden picture-frame. XM Curvilinear motifs like sea-wave, ribbon and guilloche motifs are used often in Syria, North Africa, and Anatolia. In the west, especially in Italy, the chosen motifs are mostly geometric. The geometric motifs, which were also liked in East, as well as West were portially imitated from opus sectile pavements, portially from wall decorations and portially from coffered ceilings. Checkerboards, four-pointed stars, intersecting circles, grid of bands, some of the octagons and of the geometrical panels are opus sectile originated. The effect of the coffered ceilings on the adjacent octagons, squares and rectangles with thick lines is obvious. Lotus, a very simple vegetable motif appeared in mosaic decoration after fifth century and it was reserved as a peculiar motif to eastern regions. However vine and acanthus motifs with leaves, flowers, fruits, sometimes bird, insect, lizard figures, changed with the changing of art and was used from Late Hellenistic period for a large time without giving up.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1996|
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1996
|Appears in Collections:||Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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