Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16961
Title: Bahçeşehir Toplu Konutlarının Endüstrileşme Düzeyi Üzerine Bir İnceleme
Other Titles: The Research About The İndustrialization Level Of The Bahçeşehir Mass Housing
Authors: Şener, Hasan
Gümüşel, Selda
66616
Mimarlık
Architecture
Keywords: Toplu konutlar
İstanbul-Bahçeşehir
Mass houses
İstanbul-Bahçeşehir
Issue Date: 1997
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Bu tez çalışmasının amacı Türkiye Emlak Bankası destekli Bahçeşehir toplu konutlarının endüstrileşme düzeyinin tespit edilmesidir. Birinci Bölümde teknoloji ve endüstri kavramlarının çeşitli tanımlan yapılmış ve endüstrileşmenin temel özellikleri ile endüstrileşme süreci aşamalarına değinilmiştir. Daha sonra endüstrileşmiş yapımın şimdiye kadar yapılan tanımlarına da dayanarak yapı üretiminde endüstrileşme konusunda kavram yanılmalarına değinilmiş, bina yapımını endüstrileşmeye iten faktörler üzerinde durulmuştur. ikinci Bölümde endüstrileşmiş üretim teknolojilerinin gelişimine kısaca değinilmiş ve endüstrileşme düzeyi kavramı konusunda yapılan farklı tanımlamalar yardımıyla yapı alanında endüstrileşme düzeyinin neyi ifade ettiği ele alınmıştır. Endüstrileşme düzeyi oldukça göreceli bir kavramdır. Bu yüzden teknik literatürde bu konuda yapılan farklı sınıflamalar tek tek ele alınmış ve yapı üretiminde endüstrileşme düzeyim belirleyen etmenler irdelenmiştir. Ancak bu endüstrileşme düzeyi sınıflamalarının bir yapının endüstrileşme düzeyinin tespitinde tam olarak yeterli olmadığı görülmüştür. Bu nedenle Üçüncü Bölümde Türkiye Emlak Bankası destekli Bahçeşehir toplu konutlarının endüstrileşme düzeyinin tespitinde daha önce yapılan endüstrileşme düzeyi sınıflamalarının yeterli olmadığı düşüncesiyle bir araştırma yöntemi geliştirilmiştir. Bu yöntemde konutları oluşturan bileşen aileleri sınıflandırılmış, birtakım kriterlerle bu bileşen aileleri analiz edilmiş ve bu yolla tüm projedeki endüstrileşme düzeyi elde edilmiştir. Bilindiği üzere bir yapının endüstrileşme düzeyini belirleyen etmenler bununla sınırlı değildir. Ancak bu tez kapsamında binalar yapıda kullanılan hazır bileşen kullanım düzeyi açısından incelenmiştir. Sonuç olarak Bahçeşehir toplu konutlarındaki endüstrileşme düzeyinden yola çıkılarak Türkiye'de toplu konut alanında endüstrileşmenin ne konumda olduğu ele alınmış ve Türkiye'de endüstrileşmiş yapımın gelişmesi için neler yapılabileceği konusunda çeşitli çözüm arayışlarına gidilmiştir.
Increasing of the population and migration from rural areas to the big cities and also economical evaluations of the countries are caused naturally increasing of the building needs. In order to solve this need as more faster and economically, the technological level of the building producing process is gone up day by day. Besides, the social and economical development level of the societies also affected the developments of the production technologies. At the beginning, in order to get fast production the quality level of the buildings was getting secondary importance. But it was clear evidence that industrial production in building technology is the only solution of the problem. So the technology and industrialization concepts should be examined carefully first. For this reason in the first section the industrialization and technology concepts has been studied from different point of view. The themes of the first part can be summarized in outline as follow. Technology concept that the word coming from ancient Greek is dealt with production and interested in industry. The definition of technology is used as differently meaning in different fields. But in general we may define the technology as "togetherness of techniques which is not only different with each other but also consisting of same characteristics of the materials, manpower and machinery in the process". In order to define a production system as industrialized production must be repeated long time, produced as economically, produced with machinery and organized in process. Industrialization is increasing the productivity and rising the performance of the process by using methods of technological evaluations. Basically, industrialization is a way that producing the products by machinery instead of manpower. Industrialization may divide four stages: 1st stage : Mass production 2ndstage : Scientific management 3rd stage : Automatization 4th stage : Rationalization Industrialization in building production may define in different ways. Because the defining criteria are different. That's why it is possible some misunderstanding at the concept of XUl industrialization at buildings time to time. We may explain it by giving some common examples: They deem in generally, as the meaning of industrialization in buildings equals producing in a factory. This sentence is not reflecting the reality. Some process realizing in construction site may be industrialized.. Mass production is not only and enough criteria for industrialization.. Rationalization concept is not same meaning of industrialization, because rationalization is the treatment of production methods to get less manpower and machinery working time. So it is possible to do it in conventional production.. They deem as visual effect of the building which was been constructed in prefabricated system will be mostly different from the building which was been constructed in conventional system. Otherwise there is no big difference between them as visually.. As a result, industrialized building systems may defined as togetherness of the components of the building, and its sub-systems by the methods of mass production and mounting. The effects of the increasing population caused migration, natural disasters, rapid growing of the big cities, increasing demand of the different kind of buildings and treatment of the residential buildings in bad conditions, is required industrialization in buildings. Not only above mentioned conditions but also cost of manpower, inventions of new materials and techniques, demand for producing continuously, political view of the residential problem etc. are required industrialization in buildings. Even though all those factors, industrialization in buildings is not evaluated rapidly then the other industrial fields which is playing active role of the technology. Some reasons of this trend are stability of the production place, marketing the building where has been located, unknown market in Turkey, small slice from the budget for researching and development, necessity of big amount of source for new investment in order to establish industrialized systems. Besides, they are deemed that the facades of the building which has been designed by industrialized systems are routine effect aesthetically point of view in developed countries. But it is possible to get better by using some design possibilities in prefabrication. One of the other common misunderstanding about prefabrication is increased unemployment in developing countries. In fact, labor may work under good working conditions at some phases of the production process instead hard working conditions at construction sites. When it is examined carefully of the historical evaluation of the industrialization in buildings, although not any industrialization in 1920's, they were used the repetition in the XIV buildings that one of the basic concept of the industrialization and Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier has pointed out the importance of the standardization a modular coordination. But in fact, industrialization in building has grown up after The Second World War due to renewal of destroyed buildings. In order to get the present demand urgently, aesthetic view of the buildings has not been researched sufficiently. So this approach has affected as negative to the industrialization concept. After those countries had completed their buildings needs, they have oriented to the market abroad. In Turkey, after increasing the inflation ratio abnormally at the end of the 70's the cost of the material and manpower has risen abnormally more than expected, so contractors has inclined to work with the technologies without using wooden mold, but because of the consisting of less components, and lack of enough capacity to manufacture mass production but also necessity of less pre-investment cost, the evaluation has been realized in industrial buildings. Although lack of residential building is a big problem in Turkey, industrialization in housing field was not evaluated. Some of the reasons of that are as follows: consisting a lot of components, hot enough capacity to produce mass production, not enough financial models, not enough knowledge and experienced personnel in that field. The aim of this study is determining of the industrialization level of the Bahçeşehir mass housing project that supported by Emlak Bank. First of all the term of industrialization level have to be defined clearly. Industrialization level is a changeable term according to the criteria's. For this reason in the second section the concept of industrialization level has been studied and the classification of the industrialization level stressed from different point of view. There is a limited industrialization level in a standard house construction called as conventional, i.e. prefabrication degree of the building is not zero. The classification of industrialization level of a building may vary. In technical literature Prof. Dr. Lewicky was claimed that industrialized level may divide three part as first, second and third level that possible to match the evaluation steps of the building techniques with each other. Due to the evaluations of the production methods were not put to use, this approach is not sufficient. If we consider the characteristically dimensions of the components which are used in the building we may define the prefabrication level of the buildings as follows: Prefabrication Level 1 The type of the prefabrication is the level of the 1st class material. Example: rationalized conventional building. XV Prefabrication Level 2 The type of the prefabrication is the level of the 2nd class components. Example: Ytong components. Prefabrication Level 3 The type of the prefabrication is the level of the 3rd class piece. Example: Prefabricated reinforced concrete panel systems. Prefabrication Level 4 The type of the prefabrication is the level of the 4th class cell. Example: Building systems used as East-European Countries. Prefabrication Level 5 The type of the prefabrication is the level of the 5th class linear element. Example: Scandinavian Systems. Prefabrication Level 6 The type of the prefabrication is the level of the 6th class big cell units. Example: Habitat Montreal. As these kind of classifications shows us that it may not possible to define the industrialized level of a building by using this was at the special conditions. For example, while the structural system of a building has been constructed by industrialized techniques, other parts of the building may be conventional. That's why, in order to define the industrialized level of the Bahçeşehir Mass Housing Project it has been improved a working method. For this reason in the third section this working method has been introduced and the criteria's in this working has been stressed and the results of this working have been studied from different point of view and connection with this working, industrialization level in Turkey have been stressed in the last section. Bahçeşehir Mass Housing Project that supported by Turkish Emlak Bank is a satellite city which has been located Nord-West side of Küçükçekmece Lake, on the TEM Highway. The land is about 470 hectare and the construction is gone up following the phases. This study is limited due to only realized multistory housing blocks in the First Phase. Some parts of the project is constructed by Nurol İnşaat ve Ticaret A.Ş., the other part is constructed by Mesa Mesken Sanayii A.Ş. XVI As it is mentioned above, in order to define the industrialized level of the houses as much as realistic way, first of all, component families that consist of the building have been classified and analyzed by two different criteria such as construction type and fabricated level of the material. Then these component families have been examined by some industrialized level definers. As a result, the amount of the components which have been constructed by conventional or industrialized way has been determined and also industrialized level of the whole blocks have been determined at the block and flat scale. So, differently from the other classifications of the industrialization level each component has been examined internally and determined its industrialized ratio. As a result of this study, average industrialized level of the blocks given below: Block Scale Flat Scale Nurol İnşaat ve Ticaret A.Ş. 37.07 % 36.43 % Mesa Mesken Sanayii A.Ş 34.86 % 36.23 % When we examine the result of the analysis report it is possible to conclude that structural system of these houses has been set up by tunnel formwork which is called as advanced conventional system, and other components of the buildings have been used as prefabricated components in a certain ratio.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1997
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1997
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16961
Appears in Collections:Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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