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Title: Tasarım Yönetiminde Haberleşme Ve Bunun Son Ürün Kalitesine Etkisi
Other Titles: Communication In Design Management And Its Effect To Last Product's Quality
Authors: Altaş, Nur Esin
Bilgütay, Banu
Keywords: Tasarım yönetimi
Ürün kalitesi
Design management
Product quality
Issue Date: 1998
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Mimarlıktaki proje yönetiminin önemli bir aşaması olan tasarım yönetiminde haberleşme son ürünün (proje / bina) kalitesini doğrudan ya da dolaylı olarak etkilemektedir. Bu çalışmada tasarlama ürününde arzulanan kalite düzeyine ulaşabilmek için önemli bir kalite unsuru olan organizasyon içi haberleşme kalitesinin de korunması gerektiği varsayılmıştır. Bu doğrultuda haberleşme konusu i) büro içi haberleşme, ii) büro dışı gruplarla haberleşme, iii) proje tasarım grubu arası haberleşme ve iv) insan-makine etkileşimi ana başlıklarıyla irdelenmiştir. Aynı zamanda proje yönetimi, tasarım yönetimi süreci, organizasyon tipleri, büro modelleri ve kalite gibi haberleşmeyi etkileyen çeşitli unsurlar araştırma kapsamına girmiş ve bu konulardaki literatür incelemesi araştırma içinde özetlenmiştir. Araştırma sürecinde, derinlemesine saha çalışması metodu kullanılarak büyük ölçekli bir inşaat firması olan Koray İnşaat proje grubunun haberleşme kalıpları incelenmiş ve bu gurubun uygulamasını yaptığı Demirbank projesinin kalitesi üzerinde bu kalıpların etkisi değerlendirilmiştir. Bir yıllık süre içerisinde yapılan bu saha çalışmasının sonucunda elde edilen tüm bulgular araştırmanın içinde sunulmuştur.
Communication, in design management that is one of the important processes of project management, affects the design quality directly or indirectly. In this research, quality problems caused by communication problems of information transfer breakdowns are determined and suggesting a model to come over these problem points is aimed. Communication, to take the quality of the last product (project or building) under control, appears as a parameter of quality during the design process. Communication patterns/canals, firm organization, project management model, etc. affects either drawings or building itself in a good or bad manner. Here, it is discussed that to have the quality on drawings/building itself, the organization should have a better communication quality in every field. Communication is examined inside the firm, between the firm and the outer groups, among project group members. Human-machine attraction is another datum added to the research. During the examination of communication project management, design management process, organizations, office models and quality of communication had been observed and explained in the following chapters. In the first three chapters literature researches are summarized. Firstly, definitions of communication by different writers are quoted. One of these definitions is 'Communication is the process by which two or more parties exchange information and share meaning' (O'Reilly, Pondy, 1979, p.l21)The process is social because it involves two or more people, it is a two way process takes place over time rather than instantaneously. Thus, communication model includes a communicator, an Vll encoder, a message, a medium, a decoder, a receiver, feedback and noise.Each element in the model can be examined in the context of an organization. Communication in organizations is the key point contributed to the field study of this investigation. Purposes of communication in organizations, communication methods and networks are described to understand the information flow (upward, downward, horizontal, diagonal) and the canals. There are barriers to the effective communication. These barriers are frame of reference, selective listening, value judgments, source credibility, semantic problems, filtering, in-group language, status differences, time pressures and overloading. These sources of noise can exist in both organizational and interpersonal communications. Improving communication in organizations requires two tasks: People must be better i) encoders and ii) decoders.In other words, they must strive not only to be understood but also to understand. (Bormann, 1985, p.l28-38)The techniques which are following up, regulating information flow, utilizing feedback, empathy, repetition, encouraging mutual trust, effective timing, simplifying language, effective listening, using the grapevine can help to accomplish these two important tasks. To improve the communication quality, the ratio of noise in the communication loop should be reduced. The other communication variables are as follows:. Transferring the information completely,. Using open communication canals,. Having the same field of experience,. Speaking the same professional language,. Not causing communication overload. In the second chapter the classic view of project management is tried to be explained.Project management is the combination of people, systems and techniques required to coordinate the resources needed to complete projects within the established goals (Dinsmore, 1990). According to Project Management Institute, managing projects consists of effectively dominating eight areas of expertise. These are scope, time, money (cost), quality, communications, human resources, contracts and supply and risk management. vni Managing projects comprises the design and construction levels of building formation process. One of the effects that brings success or opposite in this process is the information transfer from one to another which means communication.Meanwhile, the canal used for information flow shows the communication quality. There are many communication ways in project management process. One of them is spoken communication. Samples of spoken communication forms are taped messages, telephone, short-wave radio, one-on one dialog, formal speech, problem solving meetings, video tape, training films, etc. The other one is written communication used during the project management. For projects involving several foreign languages and complex logistics, a communication expert may be required to ensure that principles of clear written communication are built into the project management system, and those messages are lost neither in the translation nor in the routing. Some of these documents are studies and surveys, specifications, progress reports, letters, memos and notes. Organization in offices is directly concerned with the communication model. Different communications are met in different organizations. What kind of organization occurs in architectural offices and in big firms is another title in this chapter. If we look at the researches about this, we can see four main organizations. These are totalitarian model, studio model, departmental model and matrix model. The brief explanation and quality-communication effects of these models are also added here. The third chapter concerns the quality and communication relations in project management organizations.This is one of the important subjects that gives direction to the research. In these organizations quality observed in two dimensions. The first one is process and the second one is product quality. Management model of the office, communication network (either with outer groups or in the office ), communication canals, decision making process, office equipment, and project group members' positions, quality audit tools, archives and standardization are variables that affect the quality. IX In the third chapter, also total quality management approach, is tried to be explained. This approach is the planning in organizations to improve quality. It consists of six key concepts: 1 -Customers, 2-Never ending improvement, 3 -Control of business processes, 4-' Upstream ' preventive management, 5 -Ongoing preventive action, 6-Leadership and teamwork. (Hakes, 1992, p. 11) Effective communication in an organization can help realizing these concepts because effect domain of every subject is directly related with information transfer. The final title in the third chapter is improving quality in organizations and quality audit tools. To improve quality in organizations is relevant to the communication flow and controlling it. Quality audit tools used by the design firms are flow charts, checklists, line diagrams, bar charts, brain storming, effective presentations, focus groups, team building, customer / supplier agreements, training, drawing- specification cross-check, vendor review, constructibility review, record drawings, tree diagrams, matrix diagrams and activity networks (PERT, CPM, Gantt Chart) (Nelson,1995,p.l41-15 The fourth chapter comprises other researches about the topic of this study. First one is about regulating information flow at the bank of South in Atlanta of the US. This bank decided to do something about information overloading and hired a consultant to regulate the flow of communication. The result of this consultant's work was to prepare three simple one page reports for each bank manager. And the scope of these reports are explained in detail. Second research is about the communication patterns which are described as top- down, bottom-up and in terms of small group networks (wheel, circle, chain, etc.). Teachers from Delaware, Cincinnati and Utah Universities have been taken a different view. They completed a study of communication patterns between supervisors and subordinates in two different plants of a manufacturing company. Using tape recorded discussions between managers and subordinates in each plant, they attempted to explore the extend to which communication patterns were determined by the plant's organizational structures. At the end, the researchers concluded that the form of organizational structure of a firm may indeed be a primary determinant of communication and interaction patterns. The final important research is Altaş's the means and tools of design quality control mechanisms in practice. These means and tools, are i) managerial subject such as communication and interaction patterns in design group, information and decision flow, group meetings and discussions and ii) control tools such as computer use, technical documentation, presentation and visual communication standards, etc. The fifth chapter is the field study. The research is completed with conversations and archives investigations in a big design and build firm. Named KORAY Cosntruction. Communication subject is deeply examined in the design plant of the organization among project group members and between the project group and outer groups on the project of DEMİRBANK. The case of Demirbank with its place, scale, time and archives was the most useful project to obtain information for the research. After spending a year with Koray Construction firms' architects the points of its organizational structure, communication network, project process-phase diagrams, office organization, some quality audit tools evolved in Koray and importance of three dimensional design have been observed. All the conclusions with visual samples are added in order to follow the design process mentality. In the sixth and final chapter, the result of the field study is tried to be summarized. According to this result, communication is essential for an organization which has a high quality expectation because communication is tightly connected with quality.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
Appears in Collections:Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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