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|Title:||Yüksek Binaların Mimari Tasarımında Düşey Sirkülasyon Ve Asansör Problemi|
|Other Titles:||Vertical Circulation And Elevator Problems In The Architectural Design Of High - Rise Buldings|
Özak, M. Zekeriya
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science and Technology
|Abstract:||Yüksek binalarda düşey sirkülasyon sistemleri az katlı binalara göre çok önem kazanmakta ve büyük farklılık göstermektedir. Kat adedi, bina fonksiyonu, kat alanı, kullanıcı sayısı gibi özelliklere paralel olarak düşey sirkülasyon önem kazanmakta ve asansörler ön plana çıkmaktadır. Bu tez, yüksek binalarda düşey sirkülasyon ve özellikle de asansör probleminin mimari tasarımla çözülmesi gerekliliği düşünülerek, bu konudaki araştırmaların ileride yapılacak çalışmalarda yararlı olacağı inancıyla hazırlanmıştır. Birinci bölümde, çalışmanın konusu, amacı ve sınırları ile konunun önemi ve çalışmada izlenen yöntem açıklanmaktadır. İkinci bölümde, binalardaki yatay gelişmeden düşey gelişmeye geçiş ve yüksek binaları ortaya çıkartan nedenler incelenmiştir. Yüksek binaların hem Dünya' da hem de Türkiye' deki gelişmeleri, tarihi süreç içinde ve bellibaşlı örnekleriyle ele alınmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde, düşey sirkülasyon araçları sınıflandırılarak ve genel anlamda ele alınmaktadır. Bu araçlar içinde asansörler Dünya' daki ve Türkiye' deki tarihsel gelişim aşamalarına göre incelenmektedir. Ayrıca asansör tipleri ve modern asansörleri oluşturan elemanlar üzerinde durulmaktadır. Dördüncü bölümde, mimari tasarım ve uygulama organizasyonları incelenmiş, yüksek bina ana plan şemaları üzerinde durulmuş ve çekirdek planlaması çeşitli yönleriyle açıklanmıştır. Yüksek binalarda asansör planlaması çeşitli kararların verilmesi, yasal sınırlamalar, yatay ve düşeydeki düzenlemeler açısından ele alınmıştır. Tasarım sürecinde asansör sayı ve kapasitelerinin belirlenmesinde kullanılan ölçütler değerlendirilmiştir. Ayrıca yüksek binalarda asansörlerin değerlendirilmesi için geliştirilmiş olan bir uzman sistem tanıtılmıştır. Beşinci ve son bölümde ise Türkiye' den 9 adet, Dünya' dan da en yüksek 10 binanın asansör bilgileri örnekleme şeklinde ortaya konmuş, yatayda ve düşeydeki gruplandırmalar ve varsa ekspres bölümlemeler gösterilmiştir. Ayrıca bu binalarda sky-lobby' ler varsa bulunduğu katlarla birlikte ve adet olarak şematik kesitler halinde verilmiştir. Asansörlerin, kapasite, hız ve çalıştığı katları ile ilgili bilgileri içeren tablolar hazırlanmıştır. Aynı bölümde çalışmanın sonuçları açıklanmıştır.|
High-rise buildings appeared as a result of various technical and social developments. In Turkey and in the World, this type of buildings expanded rapidly and this issue has become a topic of research. In high - rise buildings, vertical circulation gains more importance together with number of floors, floor space, function of building and number of users. Among vertical circulation devices such as stairs and escalators, especially elevators have great importance. It is impossible to construct a contemporary building without an elevator. It is usually very difficult to correct an improper design during its application. On the other hand, application according to improper design decreases building usage efficiency and causes economical loss. It is thought that determination of the problems during the process of design provides easiness in application. Therefore, the issue on how to make elevator decisions from architectural perspective is the main purpose of this thesis. The aim of this study, is to enhance architectural knowledge for vertical circulation systems of high-rise buildings, particularly about elevator systems and to supply information for those who are working on these subjects. Also, it is aimed to gather related information of basic elevator design principles for high- rise buildings. In the present study, vertical development and historical development of elevator usage was discussed and progresses which could effect architectural design was evaluated. Classification of elevators have been made according to several disciplines and the relation of elevators with vertical circulation devices and building core has been examined. Essential information about the decisions related to elevators are argued towards project processes and application, without getting out for architectural framework. The elevators, its number, speed and capacity present in some high - rise buildings in Turkey are discussed from the perspective of principle of grouping vertically and horizontally. Vertical sky lobby and express zone systems of the highest top ten buildings in the world are given in a schematic frame. Within the study, information about vertical circulation and high - rise buildings in the world and in Turkey are tried to retain by making an investigation of literature. Related books and articles in Turkey have been scanned and symposium, conference and congress presentations have been gathered. Some interviews were held with famous elevator firms of Turkey and high - rise XII building elevator systems were examined. Application difficulties that the firm managers face are tried to be evaluated in terms of their causes and solutions. Apart from these project analysis of completed and uncompleted high-rise buildings were carried out and tried to get information about elevator design principles. Architectural history elaborated from its beginning up until today and it is clearly observed that all actions of human race result in a spatial organization in one way or another. Spatial living has found its continiuty in every volume, of which borders are determined by humankind, buildings they formed shaped indoor spaces and accumulation of these spaces formed urban spaces. Settlements formerly were developed horizontally around the building groups which they attach importance in the course of their daily life without an order. This building groups in the center often were thought to be religious one. Moreover, sometimes markets, administration buildings, military buildings and monumental spaces would be also in center. Towards the end of 19 th. century and in 20 th. century both in Turkey and in the World there occurred a trend towards vertical development from horizontal development together with technological and social reasons. High and light buildings, after the use of steel as structural material and fast development of elevator in vertical trips began to expand in 1880s in Chicago and New York. "Home Insurance Building" where height, steel frames and elevator concepts were combined and which was built in Chicago during 1883- 1886 was accepted and announced as the very first skyscraper of the world by "Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat" an investigation and press organization about tall buildings. After this outset period skyscraper height and quantity risen up in the USA. 30 - story "Sun Building", 40 - story "Prudential Life Insurance Tower ", 53-story "Singer Building" and 55 - story "Woolworth Building" may be mentioned as examples. 77 - story "Chrysler Building" which was built in New York during 1928-1 930 (William van Allen) and "Empire State Building" built in 1930-1931 in New York (Shreve, Lamb and Harman) were the tallest buildings within their time period and still share the higher ranks in world classification. Due to big economic crisis in the beginning of 1930s and "World War 2" following it, skyscraper could not be built. After 1950s, because of the changed general understanding and the economic conditions, new buildings were constructed and mostly new materials, simple forms were used. Even though understanding of "box" skyscraper lost its influence after 1960s, it was still encountered as an alternative among different solutions. For instance 1 10 - story "World Trade Center" built in New York by Yamasaki in 1974 has a form of regular prism. In Turkey till mid 1970s buildings not taller than 25- story were built. Among the main examples are 13 - story "Ulus işhanı" in Ankara, 24 - story "Kızılay Emek XIII İşhanı" in Ankara and 23 - story "Sheraton Oteli" in Ankara. Between 1 975-1 985 there was a limited increase. 29 - story "Türkiye İş Bankası A.Ş. Genel Müdürlük Binası" and 28 - story "İstanbul Orduevi Kültür ve Dinlenme Tesisleri" are some of the buildings built in this period. In the post - 1985 period projects of high - rise buildings got faster and there occurred important progresses with respect to highness. In this period building height risen up to 50- story buildings. Still the tallest building of Turkey is 52 -story "Mersin Ticaret Merkezi". In order for people to get any space within the building by the shorter way we need building components called vertical circulation devices. This devices should provide the connection between flats and departments for the sake of desired comfort. Vertical circulation devices in high - buildings can be discussed within following three groups: 1) Stairs 1.1. Normal stairs 1.2. Escalators 2) Ramps 3) Elevators Elevators providing direct arrival of people and different loads to the desired flat and height are one of the most important device of vertical circulation systems. Importance of elevators increases with the highness of the buildings. Number of stories of high - buildings increased with the progress in elevator technology and thereby with the opportunities resulted from these progresses. Now elevators are unavoidable sections of high - rise buildings. In the USA a mechanical expert Elisha Graves Otis invented the first model of today's elevator in 1853. First steam engine elevator carrying people were tried in Broadway in 1857. The first commercial elevator operated with electric engine was used in New York's "Demarest Building" in 1889. Invention of faster elevators in the course of time opened to new dimensions in city planing and architecture in the USA which resulted in vertical expansion of cities enlarging horizontally till to this period. In many cities especially in New York, buildings increased fast and skyscrapers devised long years ago, after the use of high speed elevators came into life. It is possible to classify elevators according to their aim of using into three groups: 1) Human Elevators 2) Patient Elevators 3) Load Elevators Human elevators are used only for carrying people. Patient elevators are designed in such a way that stretcher, wheeled chair and patients standing are earned. Load elevators are used in lifting loads and people related to loads. XIV In high - rise buildings cores are volumes where vertical circulation equipment such as elevators, stairs, mechanical materials, shafts necessary for air - conditioning and electrical cables are placed. Additionally, toilets, showers and multi - purpose corridors too are locate in the core. Cores according to their locations in the flat plan are classified as following: 1) Internal Cores 2) Tip (end) cores. 3) External Cores 4) Corner Cores In a building total flat space of the core or cores to the flat space used changes tremendously. Average total space of cores in New York's 40-70 story - office buildings (stairs, toilets, elevators and elevator aisles are included ) is 27 % of all - flat net space served by the core. This ratio increases in some older buildings up to 38 %, whereas in office buildings which are correct designs of today changes between 20-24 %. Only if the traffic in the building is predicted truly and in advance, it is possible to project elevators rationally. To do so, height of the building, plans of every flat, how many people will work in each flat and before these, for what purpose the building will be used must be known beforehand. Property owner is the one who will determine the function and ultimate aim using the building. Traffic calculations must be made according to data available. In high - rise buildings there are three traffic types upon which traffic calculation is to be made: 1) Filling of the building. 2) Evacuation of the building. 3) Traffic from flat to flat in the building. In high - rise buildings about the solutions for vertical circulation problems effective use of elevators entails some groupings vertically and horizontally. With regard to vertical regulations it is beneficial to build elevators close to stairs and to consider a distinct corridor from stair landing. In addition, not distributing elevators within the building but collecting them makes more sense. In high - rise buildings elevators, with respect to number of flats they will serve for are grouped vertically, i.e.-, enhancement of the circulation system's performance is provided via forming local and express zones. In the buildings not higher than 20 - story, it is normal for single group elevator to serve for all flats. But in taller buildings, this solution is not economic. Thus, from 20 to 35 -story buildings it is essential to consider two groups of elevator namely high and low segment. The Principle of Sharing a high rise building among elevator groups likewise could be done in taller buildings with three or four groups. Being a measurement factor in 30 to 45 -story buildings three groups and in 40-55 -story buildings four groups are used. Within taller buildings solution known as "sky lobby" should be XV considered. In this system building is divided into two or three groups and in each segment there exists elevator groups serving for only that part. Thereby, for these groups overlap space increase comes out as result. Moreover, in this system there must be special express elevators to carry passengers to the "sky lobby" of each part, and capacity of both sky lobby and segment elevators should be closed to each. Increase of the number of stories in high - rise buildings causes the rise of space elevators placed in all flats and this results in a decrease of the using space of the building. This problem could be solved out by using double - deck elevators. In order to use this kind of elevators it is necessary that, all story heights are the same. With double -deck elevators since it is possible to carry the load which could be carried by two elevators in the same place, this system provides considerable amount of space saving. Within the process of design two important concepts in determination of number and capacity of elevators are : 1) In the intense direction how many user the elevator is wanted to carry in peak - time and within 5 - minutes 2) Waiting time for an elevator Among these, elevator capacity calculation is made according to number of users in the 5- minutes of the traffic at peak times. In accordance with the function of the building a particular percentage of these users are wanted to be carried. This ratio is 15-20 % for office buildings and 5-7 % for houses. Waiting time for elevator too, changes according to the function of the building. Especially it changes between 20 - 30 seconds. Sometimes even 40 - seconds is acceptable. In the examples examined related with this thesis, it is determined that in buildings up to 20-25 stories elevators serve to all flats. In taller buildings between flats zoning system is made by working express elevators and group number in vertical section is increased. In 50- story and taller buildings sky lobby solutions are thought. Parallel to increase in stories, it is possible to attain desirable comfort with good projects of elevator systems in buildings. Applied examples must be interpreted, malfunctioning parts must be determined and good results and solutions must be attained finally. In addition, technological novelties and developments will be helpful in this field.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998|
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
|Appears in Collections:||Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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