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|Title:||İnşaat Sektöründe İş Özellikleri Ve İş Tatmini İlişkisi Üzerine Bir Araştırma|
|Other Titles:||A Research On The Relationship Between Job Characteristics And Job Satisfaction In The Construction Sector|
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science and Technology
|Abstract:||Bu çalışmanın amacı, Türkiye'de inşaat sektörünün iş tatminini olumsuz yönde etkileyen bir kaç iş özelliğinin, (İşin Çeşitliliği, İşin Özerkliği, Görevin Özelliği, Geri besleme, İş Paylaşımı ve Arkadaşlık imkanı) iş tatmini ile olan ilişkisini belirleyerek, bunun verimlilik üzerindeki etkisini analiz edip, mevcut olan eksiklerinin tespit edilerek, bunların düzeltilmesi için yapılacak çalışmalara yardımcı olunmasını sağlamaktır. Bu amaçla Türkiye'de inşaat sektöründe çalışan 24 firmayı kapsayan anket çalışmasına dayanan bir araştırma yapılmıştır. Araştırmanın yazılmasından önce iş tatmini ve verimliliğin tanımı ve önemi anlatılmış, ve iş tatminini, dolayısıyla verimliliği etkileyen iş özellikleri hakkında bilgiler verilmiştir. Bu bilgiler doğrultusunda araştırmanın tanıtılmasına geçilmiştir. Yirmi dört inşaat firmasına yapılan bu anketin ilk kısmında şantiye yönetimi yapısının belirlenmesine yönelik sorular sorulmuştur. Şantiye organizasyonunda bulunan ve şantiye yönetiminde etkili olan bu unsurların belirlenmesinde evet-hayır cevabına ve kendi yorumlarına dayanan sorular sorulmuştur. Bu kısmın değerlendirilmesi sonucunda şantiye yönetimine ait bir takım tablolar çıkarılmıştır. Anketin ikinci kısmının değerlendirilmesinde, her bir değişken için önem derecesini belirleyecek bir puanlamaya gidilmiştir. Ve anketin üçüncü ve son kısmında ise, işi yapan kişinin işi ile olan ilişkisini vurgulayan yine önem derecesini belirleyecek bir puanlamaya gidilmiştir. Anket sonucunda çıkan verilerle iş özellikleri ile iş tatmini arasındaki ilişki, dolayısıyla bunların verimlilik üzerindeki etkileri Pearson korelasyon yöntemi kullanılarak analiz edilmiştir. Araştırma belgelerinin değerlendirilmesi sonucunda iş tatmini ile iş özellikleri arasında belirli bir etkileşimin olduğu görülmüştür. İş özelliklerinden işin çeşitliliği ve görevin özelliği ile ilgili koşulların iyi bir şekilde düzenlenerek işin yeniden yapılanması sonucunda, iş tatminde de bir artış olmakta, ancak bu koşullarda oluşabilecek eksiklikler doğrultusunda ise iş tatmininde bir azalma da olmaktadır. Bunun yanında diğer iş özellikleri ise, iş tatminini etkili bir şekilde etkileyememektedir. Ancak araştırma sonucunda, iş tatmini etkileyen iş özelliklerinde meydana gelen herhangi bir değişikliliğin, verimlilikte de bir hareketlenmeye sebep olduğu görülmüştür. Sonuç olarak; Verimlilikte ki olumsuz etkilerin kaldırılmasının, iş özelliklerinden iş çeşitliliğin ve görevin özelliğin iyileştirilip yeniden yapılandırılmasına bağlı olduğu görülmüştür.|
Part.1. Introduction: Construction sector is the highest sector of a country by its numbers of working employees, intersector contractors and with the close relationship with the environment. In the construction sector, we must have good quality with a few money and effort in a short time. Because of that reason, productivity has been an important concept for the construction sectors. Job characteristics, which have great relations with the job satisfaction of an employee, are the most important factors that effect the productivity. So it's necessary to analyze the relationship between the job characteristics and the job satisfaction in order to reach the productivity which is very important in the construction sector. Part.2.The Definition And The Relationship Between The Productivity And The Job Satisfaction; We can show the job characteristics, which effect the job satisfaction like that; a) Experienced meaningfulness the work. 1. Skill Variety. 2. Task Identity. b) Experienced responsibility for outcomes of the work. 3. Autonomy. c) Knowledge of the actual results of the work activities. 4. Feedback From Job. d) Experienced meaningfulness of the work conditions. vin 5. Dealing With The Others. 6. Friendship Opportunities. These job characteristics were taken from the researches of the Hackman and Lawler, 1971; Turner and Lawrence, 1965. Toward the experienced meaningfulness of the work, there are a number of different ways that work can take on personal meaning for the Pearson who performs it. Two characteristics of jobs that seem especially powerful in influencing the experienced meaningfulness of work are skill variety and task identity. Skill variety is the degree to which a job requires a variety of different activities in carrying out the work, involving the use of a number of different skills and talents of the Pearson. When a task requires workers to engage in activities that challenge or stretch their skills or abilities, they almost invariably experience that task as meaningful, and the more skills involved, the more meaningful the work is likely to be. When a task requires workers to engage in activities that challenge or stretch their skills or abilities, they almost invariably experience that task as meaningful, and the more skills involved, the more meaningful the work is likely to be. The link between skill variety and experienced meaningfulness is probably "wired in" for human organisms. The substantive content of the materials being dealt with is not critical in establishing experienced meaningfulness; even work that is not very significant or important in an absolute sense can still be meaningful to a person if doing that work taps and stretches the performer's skills and talents. Task identity is the degree to which a job requires completion of a "whole" and identifiable piece of work that is doing a job from beginning to end with a visible outcome. Workers care about their work more when they are doing a whole job. When workers have an intact task, such as providing a complete unit of service or putting together an entire product, they tend to see that task as more meaningful than is the case when they are responsible for only a small part of the job. People care about their work more when they are doing a whole job. When workers have an intact task, such as providing a complete unit of service or putting together an entire product, they tend to see that task as more meaningful that is the case when they are responsible for only a small part of the job. Toward the increased responsibility, the characteristics of jobs that foster increased feelings of personal responsibility for the work outcomes are autonomy. Autonomy is the degree to which the job provides substantial freedom, independence, and discretion to the individual in scheduling the work and in deterrnining the procedures to be used in carrying it out. When the job provides substantial autonomy to the persons performing it, those individuals as depending EX substantially on their own efforts, initiatives, and decisions will view work outcomes. As autonomy increases, individuals tend to feel more personal responsibility for success and failures that occur on the job and are more willing to accept personal accountability for the outcomes of their work. When the job provides substantial autonomy to the persons performing it, work outcomes will be viewed by those individuals as depending substantially on their own efforts, initiatives, and decisions, rather than on, say, the adequacy of instructions from the boss or on a manual of job procedures. As autonomy increases, individuals tend to feel more personal responsibility for successes and failures that occur on the job and are more willing to accept personal accountability for the outcomes of their work. Toward the knowledge of the results of one's work is affected directly by the amount of feedback one receives from doing the work. Feedback is the degree to which carrying out the work activities required by the job provide the individual with direct and clear information about the effectiveness of his or her performance. The important point is feedback must be obtained directly from the job, as when a television repairman turns on the set and finds that it works (or doesn't work) after being repaired. The knowledge of the results of works must be derived from the work activities themselves, rather from some other person who collects data or makes a judgement about how well the work is being done. Toward the experienced meaningfulness of the work conditions, there are two different ways that work conditions can take on personal meaning for the Pearson who works in. These two job characteristics are dealing with the others and friendship opportunities. Dealing with the others is the degree to which the job requires the employee to work closely with other people in carrying out the work activities (including dealing with other organization members and with external organizational "clients"). A friendship opportunity is the degree to which the employee has the opportunity to talk informally with other employees while at work. It's important to develop a close friendship with the other employee in order to not to feel yourself alone in the work. The job characteristics that we count have affectedness on the job satisfaction. If all these job characteristics have been in a job with the required amount, there will a high satisfaction with the work. As the result of this, there will be great productivity in the same job. An employee, who is satisfacted with his or her job, will work with more productivity. Part.3.A Research On The Relationship Between Job Characteristics And Job Satisfaction In The Construction Sector: In order to find out the relationship between the job characteristics and the job satisfaction in the construction sector in Turkey, we made a questionnaire through the 24 firms that have activity in construction sector. We asked several questions to the construction managements about their job in the construction. All the questions had seven answers and arranged according to their importance in the work. Construction managements had answered the questions according to amount of the job characteristics and the job satisfaction that they have in their jobs. And then we used Pearson Product-Moment Correlation in order to find out which job characteristics have most effectiveness on the job satisfaction. Part.4.The Utilization Of The Research Findings: According to the results of the Pearson correlation, we find out that the most important job characteristic effecting the job satisfaction is the skill variety in the job. The questionnaires that the construction management's answered showed us that the employees use their different skills and talents according to the amount of the skill variety in the job. When the work wants the employees to engage in activities that challenge or stretch their skills or abilities, they almost invariably experience that work as meaningful. Task identity is the second important factor that effects the job satisfaction in the job. If the job requires completion of a "whole" piece of work, the employee care about their work and they find out their work more meaningful. Skill variety Task identity Task significance Autonomy Feedback from job. Experienced meaningfulness of the work Experienced Responsibility for outcomes of the work Knowledge of the actual results of the work activities High internal Work motivation XI Part.5 Conclusion.And Suggestions; As a result of the conclusion, we can say that the productivity increases when there is a skill variety in the job or decreases when there is not enough amount of skill variety in the job. We can also say that if the workers have an intact task, the productivity will increase or there is not a "whole" piece of work, the productivity will decreases. In the face of these results, the firms must go redesign in their organizations in order to enrich the job characteristics. By these redesigns, the employees will be doing a "whole" work and working in different amount of job in order to feel their job more meaningful.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998|
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
|Appears in Collections:||Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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