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|Title:||Kentsel Blok Ve Kentsel Mekan İlişkisi Olarak Kent Mimarlığı Ve Yeni Tasarımlar|
|Other Titles:||The Urban Architecture As The Interrelation Of Urban Block And Urban Space And The New Designs|
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science and Technology
|Abstract:||Bu tezle amaçlanan, kenti kuran, biçimlendiren bir yaklaşım olarak mimarlık'ı; mimarlığı yerleştiren anlamlandıran bağlam olarak da kenti ve kentsel dokuyu ele alarak günümüz örnekleriyle incelemektir. Bu yapılırken de ana çıkış noktası; kente mimarlığın bakış açısıyla yaklaşmak; mimarlığı kentsel açıdan ele alarak tanımlamayı hedefleyen kentsel mimarlık kavramını da bu yönden incelemektir. Tez beş bölümden oluşmaktadır.Birinci bölümde konuya genel bir bakış yapılarak kentsel doku ve kentsel mimarlık kavranılan, kentle birlikte ele alınmış, önemleri belirtilmiştir. Bu çalışmanın amaçlan, araştırma alanlan belirlenerek kentsel doku elemanlarının birbirleriyle ilişkileri ve bütünde kente ve kentsel mimariye katkılan ortaya konulmuştur.İkinci bölümde kentsel doku öğeleri, öncelikle yerin ve kültürün getirdiği veriler ışığında ele alınarak, doluluk- boşluk ilişkileriyle değerlendirilmiştir. İki boyutlu kentsel şemalardan çıkarılan kentsel elemanlar, dokuyu oluşturan doluluk ve boşluklar olarak öncelikle ele alınarak üçüncü boyuttaki ilişkileriyle incelenmiş, kentsel doku bütünlüğünden kopanlmadan bu ilişkiler okunmaya çalışılmış, kentsel tasanma katkılan araştırılmıştır. Kentsel bloğun kentsel doku içindeki önemi ve açık mekanlan biçimlendirme özelliği vurgulanarak, kesişim yüzeyinin ve ara geçiş mekanlannın kente ve mimarlığa katkılan ortaya konulmuştur.Üçüncü bölümde kentsel oluşumun tarihçesine bakılmış ve kentsel dokunun biçimsel yönden farklı tipleri, antik dönemden başlayarak post modemizme kadar ele alınarak incelenmiştir. Böylece kentsel dokunun biçimlenişindeki süreklilik ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır.Dördüncü bölümde, kentsel blok ve açık mekan biçimlenişinde, kentsel tasanm teori ve ilkeleri ele alınarak, insanlar tarafından kolay algılanabilir, açık, yönlenmelerini sağlayan, okunabilir mekanlann tasarlanarak, yaşanabilir bir çevre oluşumunun önemi vurgulanmıştır. Bunun için de kentte ne binasının değil nasıl bir binanın yapılacağının tartışılmasının gerektiği belirlenmiştir. Kentsel doku ve mimarlık arasındaki ilişkinin hem bir bütünün parçası olabilecek kadar sıkı, hem de birbirlerinin tekil özelliklerini yok etmeden, ilişkili olabilmelerine imkan verecek şekilde gevşek olabilmesinin önemi kentsel mimarlık kavramıyla ortaya konulmuştur.Beşinci bölümde ise, tüm bu çalışmaların bize kazandırdığı, tek yapı ölçeğinden sıynlarak, kent ölçeğinde tasanm problemlerine yaklaşma düşüncesiyle, kentsel doku yenilemeleri ve obje niteliğindeki yeni örnekler, mimarlığın bakış açısıyla incelenmiştir. Kentsel tasarımın, işlevsel tipolojilerden kurtularak kentsel tipolojilere yönelmesinin, kentsel doku bütünlüğünün sağlanmasındaki önemi belirtilmiştir.Anahtar Kelimeler: Kentsel mimarlık, kentsel tasarım, kentsel doku, kentsel blok, kentsel mekan.|
City is a totality with its citizens, buildings, streets, squares, solid- void relations and public- private spaces and all together they create the urban pattern. The fundamental principles of all cities are the same but it is the geographical location or the social and cultural qualities, which creates the difference. Because of this there are infinite number of identities and characteristics of cities.City can be considered as architecture. They could be defined separately but it is the urban architecture, which creates a continuous language between them and acts as a generator for their communication. The traditional way of introvert characteristic of architecture has been changing with the growth and extension of cities and metropolitans.The beneficial growth of cities and achievement of the urban experience, which gives the inhabitants the feeling of belonging, can be obtained by the organized and defined urban spaces. The definition of urban elements which are the urban solids and voids and their relationships determine the characteristic of the urban fabric. Among these elements, the built forms have a special significance in the realization of visual totality in the urban space. The proper formation of urban spaces depends on the interface of urban built forms and urban open spaces. The main aim of this thesis is to consider architecture as the form giver and establisher of the city fabric. This study consists of five chapters.In the first chapter, a general approach to this subject is taken into consideration and the concepts that establish an urban architecture in the city and their importance within the city fabric are stated.The main problems about cities in recent years are mostly because of the misunderstanding of the city concept and this is stated in the second chapter. Cities are just like museums, as they own infinite greatness and variety of place and human collections. In the analysis and interpretation of cities, social and economical systems, political subjects are used, but it shouldn’t be forgotten that city is also a piece of art and a tool for communication. Neither the gathering of buildings nor the physical planning of the experts can create a city. It is a social fact in which wecan dwell and gain an individual identity. Therefore the city, out to offer a sense of belonging, in spite of individual choices. A city, besides its functional and physical facilities, should be a place that the subjective and psychological processes are experienced and the affective perception and experiences are transformed into cognition, personality and memories. Briefly, in the words of Kahn, “A city is a place where a small boy as he walks through it, may see something that will tell him what he wants to do his whole life.” The city, thus, is the place where meeting takes place. We are conditioned by the place; we gain our identity when we choose among the images it offers.The experience of space that we consider as the essential part of architecture begins in cities; on the streets, squares, gardens, playgrounds, houses, malls, ...etc. In other words, this continuity takes place in the man- made environment of defined boundaries. In the creation and definition of urban spaces, ‘place’ plays an important role in giving the inhabitants the feeling of belonging and identity. Spaces don’t take their formation from a void but from place. Place consists of basic elements of our daily life which can be stated as; human beings, animals, trees, flowers, forests, stone, sand, water, cities, streets, houses, ...etc. All of these elements define the boundaries of place and take part in the definition. Urban blocks form the character of a place, and the identity of this place depends on the creativity of human being that determines the style for the construction of buildings.Urban pattern consists of the solid architectural built forms and the void urban spaces. Urban space is directly related to architectural space as the buildings define the boundaries of this space. It is only the clear legibility of its geometrical characteristics and qualities, which allows us consciously to perceive external space as urban space. The polarity of internal- external space is constantly in existence, since both obey very similar laws not only in function but also in form. Internal space consists of three dimensions; floor, wall and ceiling. If we adapt them to urban space, urban floor will be the street, urban wall will be the various kinds of facades of buildings and the urban ceiling will be the sky. But upper termination or the silhouettes of the buildings condition its appearance. When the space out of the buildings is determined as exterior space, the urban space can be called as ‘architecture without a roof. The urban pattern is an entity defined by the form of the urban blocks and open spaces. In the formation of this entity, the urban open spaces have the public functions of acquiring, the meeting of people, socialization, forming the common identity and the feeling of belonging, the communication, .. .etc.The urban elements that form the urban space can be stated as, the street, square and built forms. They define the characteristics of the space and the urban experience is directly effected from the meeting of these elements. In the determination of urban spaces, the buildings can be considered according to the enclosure, complexity and order formed in the space. The enclosure is essential in the determination of open- closed spaces while complexity and order give the characteristics and livability of space by the effect of facade.The urban built forms that we already mentioned, have legible effect in the urban space. They are either the instruments to form streets and squares or they result from a pattern of streets and squares. They participate in the urban space by their functions, which produce activity, their space definition and character as a node or landmark and wall or facade.In the formation of urban spaces, density, continuity and diversity of urban elements is essential. The urban experience in the settlements can be achieved visually by providing these concepts. The close togetherness of urban elements in an urban space can be defined as density in spatial terms. This means that the buildings, which surround the open space, should come together in a way that the space can be perceived as an interior. In other words, the unique elements, the built forms should melt in one another and in the end, visually perceived as a whole. This can be achieved in the continuity of these elements. If we neglect the articulation of buildings, the continuity between volumes, contours and surfaces will be realized and this will lead seeing the pattern as carved from one entire.The meeting of urban elements in a settlement also brings variety. This concept raises a question of how diverse elements can form a totality, a place. The combination of these diverse elements according to some rules, like visual balance, rhythm, order, repetition, would accelerate the arousal of the variety in the unity. This has a remarkable dominant effect and makes the urban space dynamic. Density, continuity and diversity are general properties and if they are related to street and square, the urban space can be defined more easily.In the urban pattern, the urban block, serves as the container, bordering line and background wall of urban outdoor space, therefore the area where they meet and interact has importance. This meeting causes a tension between interior and exterior spaces. In order to converge this tension from disturbance to continuity, transitional spaces should be created for connection. The area of transition shouldn’t have to be an edge or a boundary when it is thought in a wider sense. The visual and physical permeability can be constructed for the interface.The urban street that is universally seen as the area for public circulation and recreation, is more or less narrow, linear space, lined by buildings. The important thing is that streets usually distinguished by their horizontal rhythm, while the vertical tensions only contribute to define the general atmosphere. When the streets are oriented, the point of arrival usually ends by a square or one or more dominant buildings. The intersection of streets or crossing is also an urban element, which infers a possible change of direction and slows down the continuous movement of the street. They can be considered as ‘quasi square’ as they open up the new aspects of place. The life on streets can give clues about the public point of view towards the city concept.Gathering of buildings around an open space forms the square. It offers unity but also the articulation much more than the street. Squares are also determined by the formal factors just like streets but they differentiate by being a meeting place and a focus point. The variations that begin in the streets are displayed in the squares.The urban pattern is formed from the urban solids which can be classified as the public monuments and institutions, the predominant field of urban blocks and edge defining buildings and urban voids which are the entry foyers, acting as a passageway between private and public space, the semi- transition zones of inner block voids, the network of streets and squares, parks and gardens and linear open space systems. While the urban solids define the urban space, they participate in a mosaic with urban voids in order to form the continuity of spaces.In this thesis the urban block and open space relationship is chosen for research, as they are the primary generators of urban design. The urban context, topographical qualities of a place, climate and cultural aspects have an effect on the formation of city fabric. But it is the urban block and open space interrelation that defines the space and also morphology, topology and typology are the techniques that can be used to read the city and its fabric. The city can be represented by its architecture but the help of these technics can only form the continuous language which streets, squares or buildings define. Morphology, being the science of form, or the various factors that govern and influence built form can be considered by the spatial boundaries. Topology deals with the spatial organization of the urban space and it is the typology which shows the conditions and qualities of a settlement, the variations in it and the types are the essence of a space. On the way to form a defined and continuous urban space, the interface of buildings and urban outdoor space should be obtained. The treatment of built form and urban outdoor space adjacent to it can offer accessibility to penetrate each other in such a way that not only the borderlines between inside and outside become less explicit but also the sharp division between private and public domain is softened. The urban wall, which is the facade of the urban block, has an important characteristic in this interference and the formation of spatial continuity as the urban architecture has taken its identity from this wall and the urban public realm is also defined. By the help of the spaces of penetration like, arcades, entry foyers and ground floors, courtyards, plazas and the elements like, doors, windows, porches, stairs, balconies, cornices, gardens, etc., the life of the urban outdoor space can continue into the private space.When we consider the city as a whole, urban design can be taken as continuity not an instant answer to particular problems. Although the design of a building or an environmental planning has an effect on the design of a city, these can not be considered separately as urban design projects. The essence of urban design lies in the planning of these elements through a period of time and should be considered in three-dimensional space.In the third chapter, the history of urban formation and its continuity through time is bein discussed. The main difference in the city fabric can be distinguished from the formation of urban blocks and their relationship with the urban space. This can be classified as geometrically regular and irregular cities. Also it can be taken as planned and spontaneously developed city fabric. In the planned cities the urban blocks have regular shapes and the standardization of parcels and building types has an importance. An authority usually determines the planning or the design of the fabric. But in the irregular morphologies, there can be special conditions for special design problems because of the block formations. The spontaneous city is the result of development, left entirely to individuals who actually live on the land. The resultant form is irregular, non- geometric and organic, which is defined from the relationship of streets and blocks.In the continuity of history, we can distinguish that the dialectical elements of the urban spatial structure, streets, squares and blocks, are all combined together in three different patterns; The blocks are the resultant of a street and square pattern, such as in ancient Greek towns, ex. Priene.When we examine the Greek polis and the agora, while the urban spatial structure was formed from the organic or geometric urban form, there is also a relation between the organization of the spatial structure and the topographical conditions. The spatial enclosure defined by continuous porticoes- stoa; and the flanking buildings didn’t contribute to space definition. The public open spaces, agoras and monuments had primary importance. In the Roman City structure, Central Square for public and commercial purposes had a special role. The gridiron ordered system and axial arrangement was used but there wasn’t any relationship between the organization of the spatial structure and the topographical conditions.The streets and squares are the result of the position of the blocks, such as in Medieval City planning, ex. Bruges. In the medieval cities, the growth of the city form was organic and there was a lack of space awareness in the irregular formation of streets and squares. There was a hierarchy in the overall layout of the urban squares and there was usually a dominant square in front of the cathedral, town hall and the market place.The streets and squares are precise spatial types. The block is a result, such as in Baroque redevelopment over existing cities, ex: the development in Rome.When we examine the Renaissance cities and urban spaces, an axial movement idea was dominant in the urban fabric. There was a return to the classical Roman concept and a network of interconnecting streets and squares were distinguished. In the Baroque period, the urban spaces had a dynamic and systematic structure. The wide and straight streets, avenues were primarily seen and the city fabric was usually circular- rectangular or regularly shaped. Today, the destruction of cultural values, loss of identity and natural characteristics of the urban space effects the city fabric. Also the modernism usually dealt with the single building and neglected the urban fabric and the relationship between urban blocks and open spaces. The post modernism returns to the values of historical urban patterns and the need for structuring a connection between urban solids and voids has taken into consideration with the help of the urban design and architecture. The main aim is to rescue cities from being an agglomeration of isolated elements and lost spaces. In the fourth chapter, the urban design theories and the design principles are being discussed in order to maintain a complete urban pattern. By this way, easily perceivable, responsive, open, providing orientation, legible spaces can be designed. The urban design theories are; Figure- ground relationship presents the balance of urban solids and voids and their interrelation. The starting point for an understanding of urban form is the analysis of this relationship.Linkage theory, the dynamics of circulation becomes the generator of urban form. The emphasis on connection and movement is a significant contribution in this approach. Place theory, the importance of historic, cultural and social values in urban space design and the contextual approach is being emphasized by this theory. The urban design principles have a creative effect in the formation of spatial and formal conditions of the city. These ideals link the appropriate design ideas to the fabric of the built environment. The built environment should provide its users with an essentially democratic, responsive setting, enriching their opportunities by maximizing the degree of choice available to them. These design principles can be stated as; Physical and visual permeability, the places, which are accessible to people, can offer them choice by alternative ways in the environment both physically and visually. Lateral Enclosure and Edge Continuity, continuity of the urban wall is important in achieving lateral enclosure. By enclosure, spaces can be defined and the continuity of wall prevents the creating of gaps that break up the sense of space. Alignment creates a reference for new designs in the urban space by positioning the edges and boundaries of urban blocks on the same line. Directing sequential movement, creates a directed continuity of public space for the pedestrian experience of movement between urban blocks. Variety of uses, is also important for creating responsive environments. The levels of demand for different types of uses on the site can be achieved and this will help legibility of that space. Legibility, the degree of choice offered by a place depends partly on how legible it is how people can understand its layout. The tentative network of links and uses already established now takes on three dimensional form as the elements which give perceptual structure to the place, are brought into the process of design. As part of this process, routes and their functions are differentiated from one another by designing them with differing qualities of spatial enclosure.Visual appropriateness, a vocabulary of visual cues must be found to communicate the levels of choice already designed into the place. The visual qualities affect the interpretations of people. The ground and upper plane, human scale, indoor- outdoor fusion is the common qualities that provide visual appropriateness. Architecture and the city can be considered as similar. They can be defined separately but it is the urban architecture that constitutes a continuous language between them. The role of architect and the boundaries of architecture have been changing over time. The environmental aspects, the characteristics of place, the urban fabric and the context, begin to effect architecture. This leads having more communication and participation with the city. The philosophy of urban architecture is to consider whole city as a work of architecture and approach to design problems by accepting the same ideas for the single building and the city as a whole.In the fifth chapter the whole study and its main profits are discussed with the new designs. By this way the importance of urban architecture is re- stressed as a design generator to form a bridge between city and new designs.As a concluding remark, we can say that, the existing urban fabric and spatial continuity or in other words, urban context has primary importance in the urban design process. To design in a city and design something, which belong to that city and place does not mean to imitate the existing characteristics but interpreting them. The decisions can be given firstly by two- dimensional solid- void relation layouts and carrying them to three-dimensional layouts will bring us the structure, which participates in the urban architecture. The designs in the city fabric, benefits from the environmental datum but they also contribute to the fabric and belong to that place. These experiences can be carried out to the newly established city parts and provide the inhabitants the feeling of belonging to that place. Keywords: Urban architecture, urban design, urban pattern, urban block, and urban space.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1998|
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
|Appears in Collections:||Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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