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|Title:||Çamur arıtma metodları ve İstanbul ili atık çamur yönetimi seçimi|
|Other Titles:||Domestic And Industrial Sludge Management Alternatives For The City Of Istanbul|
Çevre Bilimleri ve Mühendisliği
Environmental Science and Engineering
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science and Technology
|Abstract:||Atıksu arıtma tesislerinin sayısının artmasıyla birlikte oluşan arıtma çamurunun da bertaraf edilmesi büyük önem taşımaktadır. Arıtma çamurlarının, yoğunlaştırma, stabilizasyon, şartlandırma, susuzlaştırma, termal indirgeme, ısıl kurutma, kompostlaştırma işlemleri gibi arıtma metodları ve araziye uygulama, dağıtım ve pazarlama, depolama sahasına gömme gibi son arıtma alternatifleri 2. Bölümde verilmiştir. 3. Bölümde, konu ile ilgili olarak diğer ülkelerdeki (Avrupa Birliği, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri ve Japonya) uygulamalar anlatılmıştır. 4. Bölümde, İstanbul ili için hazırlanan atık çamur yönetim projesi ile ilgili önceki çalışmalar incelenmiş, yapımı planlanan 11 adet evsel atıksu arıtma tesislerinden kaynaklanacak olan arıtma çamurlarının nihai bertaraf yöntemi seçimi için dört alternatif belirlenerek maliyet hesabı yapılmıştır. Arıtma çamurlarının 2020 yılındaki değerleri kullanılmış, yoğunlaştırma, stabilizasyon, susuzlaştırma proseslerinden geçen çamurdaki katı madde muhtevasının % 30 olacağı kabulü yapılmıştır. 5. Bölümde, maliyet hesabı değerlendirilerek, atık çamurların evsel katı atıklarla birlikte depolanması en uygun çözüm olarak seçilmiştir.|
Sludge is a product of municipal wastewater treatment plants. It usually contains 93 - 99.5 percent water as well as solids, and dissolved substances. Especially, as a consequence of the growing environmental awareness worldwide, these wastewater solids are treated prior to ultimate use or disposal. The ultimate disposal of the solids, and semisolids sludge, and concentrated contaminants are removed by treatment. This problem is the one of the most difficult, and expensive problem. Investment costs of sludge treatment units consists of 30 - 40 % of total treatment unit costs. Sludge treatment operating expenses are also 50 % of total operating expenses. There are various methods for treatment of sludge. In this sutdy, these methods are reviewed, and domestic, and industrial sludge management alternatives for the city of Istanbul are suggested. In Chapter 2, Sludge treatment processes are studied. Sludge usually contains 0.25 - 12 percent solids by weight, depending on the operations, and processes used. For this reason, sludge is treated in various processes. The principal methods used to process, and disposal of sludge are thickening (concentration), conditioning, dewatering, and drying are used primarily to remove moisture from sludge; digestion, composting, incineration, wet - air oxidation are used primarily to treat or stabilize the organic material in the sludge. IX Wastewater treatment plants commonly employ sludge thickening unit processes for the concentration of either combined or seperate sludge streams. Thickening reduces the volumetric loading to, and increasing the efficiency of, subsequent solids-processing steps. Thickening methods are Gravity Thickening, Flotation Thickening, Centrifugation, Gravity Belt Thickening, Rotary Drum Thickening. Stabilization processes convert sludges to a stable product for ultimate disposal or use. Process reduce pathogens in the sludge, thus providing a less odorous product. The most common stabilization methods are Anaerobic Digestion, Aerobic Digestion, Chemical Stabilization, Composting. Sludge conditioning is chemical or thermal treatment of sludge to improve the efficiency of thickening or dewatering processes. Conditioning methods are Chemical Conditioning, Physical Conditioning; Heat Treatment, Elutration, Freezing, and Thaw. Disinfection methods are -as follows; - Pasteurization, - Long - term Storage. Moisture contents of sludges are reduced by dewatering processes which are as follows; - Mechanical Dewatering Methods; - Filter Press, - Vacuum Filter, - Centrifuge, - Belt Filter Press, - Natural Dewatering Methods; - Sand Beds, - Lagooning, - Freeze Assisted Sand Bed Dewatering, - Vacuum Assisted Drying Beds, - Wedgewire Beds, - Paved Beds. Ultimate disposal methods are as follows; - Thermal Reduction; - Multiple-Heart incineration, - Fluidized-bed incineration, - Wet-air Oxidation, - incineration with Municipal solids, - Heat Drying, - Composting, - Land Application, - Distribution and Marketing, - Chemical Fixation, - Landfill. Choosing above these methods to treat sludges, designer should take the sludge characteristics, and quantities into consideration. Sludge handling and disposal is the most difficult part of wastewater treatment, and also most processes are costlv. Other countries experences' on sludge treatment are examined in Chapter 3. While wastewater treatment standards are getting more solid in Europe; as well as in other parts of the world; it brings sludge treatment problems at increasing volume. Almost all European countries have their own legislation on sludge disposal and handling. Until 2000, it is estimated that annual dry solid volum will be 17 million ton. Mostly used stabilization method is anaerobic digestion. Ultimate disposal methods are land application, ladfilling, incineration, ocean disposal. European Union enacted that since January 1, 1999; ocean disposal will be prohibited. There is tendency towards agricultiral use in Europe. In the USA, 25 - 30 % of sludges are being incinerated, and for the remaining part; composting, land application, and landfilling methods are being used. XI Combustion is the most regarded ultimate disposal in Japan. About 58 % of sludges is being incinerated, and 15 % of them is in agricultural use. Since; Municipal and Industrial Sludge Management Project for the city of Istanbul is unique project for this field, it is examined in Chapter 4. Sludge treatment processes are given. Istanbul Water and Sewerage Administration (ISKI) plans that there will be eleven wastewater treatment processes in 2020, and it is also estimated that these processes will be produce approximately 1334 ton primary and activated sludges per day. Wastewater sludges will be treated by thickening, stabilization, dewatering processes. On the other hand, it is also calculated that industrial sludges will be nearly 208 ton per day in 2020. Four ultimate disposal alternatives are suggested for treated sludges. 1st alternative: Together with solid waste, sludges should be landfilling. 2nd alternative: There should be two combustion processes. One is in Eropean side, in Küçükçekmece, and the other is in Asian side in Tuzla. 3rd alternative: For the first ten years ladfilling should be used, and later incineration processes should be built. 4th alternative: There should be two combustion processes. One is at European side, in Küçükçekmece, and other is at Asian side, in Tuzla. Total costs of these alternatives are examined in Chapter 5. It is found that first alternative - together with solid waste, sludges should be landfilling - is the cheapest one. Waste sludges can be utilized as daily cover at municipal solid waste landfills if they consist of minimum 30 % of solids content. When it is not met; the fourth alternative will be selected. Also composted sludges can be used as daily cover at municipal solid waste landfills. xu These composted sludges can also be utilized as fertilizer in landscape usage. For the industrial sludges, these following suggestions are made; - Non harmful industrial sludges can be disposed to landfills together with solid waste. These disposals can also be utilized by recycling. - Harmful industrial sludges should be stored in special areas. For the storage, there must be governmental legislation and supervision.
|Description:||Thesis (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 1995|
Tez (M.Sc. ) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1995
|Appears in Collections:||Çevre Bilimleri ve Mühendisliği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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