Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16604
Title: İstanbul'un fethinden Lale devrine kadar Osmanlı kargir mimarisinde yapım teknikleri 1453-1730
Authors: Kuban, Doğan
Akıncı, Şirin
75021
Restorasyon
Restoration
Keywords: Osmanlı mimarisi
Restorasyon
Yığma yapılar
Ottoman architecture
Restoration
Masonry buildings
Issue Date: 1998
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Bu çalışma, İstanbul'un Fethinden Lâle devri sonuna (1453-1730) kadar, Osmanlı yapım teknikleri konusunu, genelde Klasik dönemin tümünü içeren ikiyüzelli yıllık bir süreyi incelemektedir. Genelde anıtsal yapılardaki yapı teknikleri ve konstrüktif yapı biçimlerinin derlenmesi, sınıflandırılması ve Osmanlı yapı 'corpus 'una bir katkı amacını taşımaktadır. Tezin içerdiği yapım evreleri ve yapım elemanları şimdiye kadar bir çok çalışmanın konusunu oluşturmuşsada, bunlar daha çok tek yapı ya da tek eleman bağlamında ele alınmıştır. Bu çalışmada, yapım tekniklerinin mimarlık tarihinin gelişmesi içindeki, oldukça homojen ve saptayıcı rolleri belirlenmeğe çalışılmıştır. Öteyandan yapı ayrıntılarını içeren böyle bir yapıtın restorasyon çalışmalarına katkısı olabileceği düşünülmüştür. Kronolojik bir dizin içinde, yapı tipi ayırımına gitmeden, Klasik dönemin genel geçer yapım sürecinin bir tablosu oluşturulmağa çalışılmıştır. Birinci bölümde Osmanlı dönemi yapım teknikleri üzerine genel gözlemler dile getirilmiş, Bizans ve Fetih öncesinin etkilerine değinilmiştir. İkinci bölümde Fetih' ten sonra yapı tasarımı ve malzeme konusu ele alınmıştır. Burada, bir Osmanlı yapısının tasarımından başlanarak inşaat alanının hazırlanması (malzeme ve işgücünün sağlanmasıyla ilgili hazırlık çalışmaları )ve şantiye organizasyonunun bugüne kadar saptanan kurgusu açıklanmıştır. Bu süreçte, yazılı kaynaklardaki terimlerin yardımına dayanarak yapıların projelendirme konusu tartışılmıştır. Çalışmanın ağırlığı üçüncü bölümdedir. Tüm yapı elemanları, malzeme, yapım ve mimari biçim ilişkileri içinde ele alınmıştır. Temelden başlayan ve çatıda biten araştırma süreci 104 yapı üzerindeki 186 yapı elemanının rölövesi ve daha önceki çalışmalardan 166 yapı elemanı ayrıntısı, 389 fotoğrafla birleştirilerek hem görsel hem deskriptif bir anlatımla tanımlanıp, yapı tarihi başlıca özellikleriyle sunulmuştur. Dördüncü bölüm bu panoramanın tanımladığı genel sonuçları içermektedir.
The Turkish period in Anatolian architecture reveals many different styles imported by nomad craftsmen. They were brought from remote areas for the ever growing needs of the Ottoman Empire. The architectural character of Bursa and Edirne was also performed in Istanbul, The new capital of the Ottoman Empire after its the conquest in 1453. D. Kuban Mentions that by the time of the classical Ottoman period, the contemporary architects of the Sinan Period were experienced in construction techniques, forms and order. It should be taken into account that in the success of Sinan lies the presence of building technology, structural design and form of a previous period. The use of alternating stone and brick which was an important construction technique in Byzantine architecture continued its presence in early Ottoman architecture. The last quarter of the 14th century can be conceived as an era of assimilation and invention. The 14th century facade order represents a period of pre-conquest synthesis of Ottoman architecture and a preparation period to imperial architecture. Many architectural elements of the 'Beylik' Period were also used in Ottoman architecture, forming the main architectural elements of classical Ottoman architecture. This work encompasses Ottoman construction techniques from the conquest of Istanbul in 1453 to the beginning of the tulip period, 1730. XXXI The objective of this study is to define Ottoman construction techniques from foundation to roof covering. This analyze is done by giving many detail examples of many buildings in a chronological order. Although many books were written on construction techniques of the Ottoman period, this research is made by analyzing many buildings and their details in Istanbul. With the data gathered from references and surveys of surviving buildings belonging to the period studied, one will be able to understand the phases of construction of a building from the classical Ottoman period. This essay can be used as a reference manual for future restoration work. During the research phase of this study, the primary references in hand were construction books belonging to the buildings of the Sultans. These books are important references for Ottoman history of architecture and for the understanding of construction phases of the period besides being an important economical and social document. The most significant reference is a construction book of the Süleymaniye Mosque and complex and the other, more important reference is the *Risale-i Mimariyye' written by Cafer Çelebi for Sedef kâr Mehmet Ağa, the architect of Sultan Ahmet Mosque. Although the subject of the thesis covers a period from 1453 to 1730, buildings belonging to former or later period have also been referred in order to be able to compare construction techniques and organizational skills. One of the most important reference book is named ^Tarih-i Camii Şerifi Nur-u Osmaniye' written by the secretary Ahmet Efendi of the Nur-u Osmaniye Mosque from 1748-1755. It is the first reference on construction techniques, details, site organization and material from the 18th century. It is supposed that some of the construction techniques mentioned in this book were use in the classical Ottoman period as well. Risale was evaluated by D.Kuban who made a detailed interpretation of construction techniques and technology. XXXll The last document concerning the matter is the construction book of the Ayazma Mosque founded by Sultan Mustafa III. (for his mother). The books mentioned above belonging to important buildings and notes taken from architects from the 15th century to the 18th century, provide some basic information to revitalize the concept of Ottoman construction techniques. The first chapter, includes a general review of Ottoman construction techniques. A relation between Byzantine and Beylik period architecture and their effects on Ottoman architecture is analyzed. The second chapter deals with building design and materials in Ottoman architecture. Design, planning and site organization phases of buildings are examined. Also the design of projects are discussed with the help of the idioms used in references. Site preparation, organization and the forming of the construction field are explained. The supply of materials and labor might be the most important part amongst all. Information concerning the subject was taken from records. Another important activity of construction phase is the providing of material to the site. The essential materials that form Ottoman buildings were stone, brick, timber, iron, lead and lime. One of the essential materials in Ottoman architecture is stone. Their kinds and origins are found in references. For the construction of Ottoman buildings in Istanbul, a kind of limestone called * küf eki' was used since late Roman period. It was coming from quarries near Bakırköy Other stones used for foundations are *odtaşı' found in Kadıköy and marble from Marmara Island. The ^Risale-i Mimariyye' written by Cafer Çelebi, provides a listing of marble and other stones and detailed information about materials used in Ottoman architecture. Other materials that were largely used in Ottoman architecture are brick and tile. The organization and production of the kinds of brick used are studied. Important production centers mentioned in references are Galipoli and Piri Paşa district in Istanbul. Timber is also a material which was widely used in Ottoman architecture. According to records in construction books, wood came from the Black Sea cost and the Balkans. In construction XXXUl books, they were mentioned as 'posts', 'sills', ' (vergeh) beam', 'rafters', * sheeting (el vah) ', according to where they were to be used. Otherwise they were mentioned with their dimensions or their quality such as good, mediocre etc. Some indicate timber by their origin. In Ottoman architecture iron is used for clamps and tenons as seen in the Nur-u Osmaniye Mosque, It was used for strengthening the building. The Nur-u Osmaniye Mosque can be considered as the ultimate example of Ottoman building technology. The acquisition and transportation of material to the construction site is explained. In this context, the largest production center of al iron, from the late 15th century to the mid 19th century, was Samakov, in Bulgaria. In the third chapter, construction technology and forms are separately studied. In Ottoman construction techniques, there are two kind of foundations. Stone foundations made on solid soil and foundations made on wooden piles where soil is not solid enough. The foundation walls were usually made of quarry stone or rough fieldstone up to the pavement level. On weak soils, a sort of foundation raft was used. Walls carrying vertical loads were of ashler or alternating stone and brick masonry. It is seen that in alternating stone and brick walls, one course of stone and two courses of brick or one course of stone and three courses of brick were often used. Masonry walls were also made of rough stone and quarry stone. As a section is made through a wall it is seen that the outer part of the masonry wall is made with ashler stone and the interior is filled with rough stone all bound together with 'Horasan' mortar. Timber ties were used as building elements. As a construction element windows and doors were analyzed by determining the relations between materials and construction techniques. Also a chronological specification was made for window and door jambs. Columns and piers were used as load bearing elements. Usually material was sorted out from ancient buildings for making columns. It is understood that pedestals and capitals were connected by pins. In large piers, masses are either prismatic or in a cylindrical form or both. Arches were made in different dimensions and from different materials, regarding to where they are used. Materials most often encountered are stone, brick XXXIV alternating stone and brick, Marmara marble and pudding-stones of various colors. Transition elements were squinches, pendentives and Turkish triangles. The materials varied according to the lengths to be covered, in Ottoman architecture the essential covering system was the dome and the barrel vault. Brick was widely used for these structures. The roofing usually used was lead sheets. The chapter also includes a review of substructure, plaster, decorative tiles, mukarnas, chimneys, fireplaces, minarets and ornamental features. In the fourth chapter, in the light of the results deducted from the research, the question of whether there has been an notable change or not during the period from 1453 to 1730 in Ottoman construction techniques is discussed and tried to be answered. Based on a long architectural development of preceding Eastern civilizations which formed the background of the Osmanli era, Architects of the period were furnished with the knowledge and technology to form brilliant designs at The time called Classic Ottoman'. During the period of Architect Sinan who was undoubtedly the most creative of his time, building technology did not quite differ unless for the expanding use of iron. We can comprehend that Construction details and materials reached a standard during the analyzed period.
Description: Tez (Doktora)--İTÜ Fen Bil. Enst.,1998
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/16604
Appears in Collections:Restorasyon Lisansüstü Programı - Doktora

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