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|Title:||Ankara'nın konutlaşma sürecindeki biçimsel gösterge değerlerinin ''kimlik'' kavramı ile ilişkilendirilmesine ait bir inceleme|
History of Architecture
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science and Technology
|Abstract:||Kentsel mekanlardaki konut alanları, o kente ait kimlik oluşturmada önemli bir yere sahiptirler. Ankara kentinde, Cumhuriyetin kuruluşu ve ardından kentin başkent ilan edilmesiyle sosyal/ ekonomik / politik / kültürel / dönüşümler yaşanmıştır. Bu dönüşüm içinde yeni oluşan değerlerin kentin fiziksel mekanına dolayısıyla konutların biçimsel / kullanımsal ortamlarına yansıdığı izlenmektedir. Cumhuriyet döneminin mimarlık ortamının verileri diğer yandan Ankara Kent' inin planlama değerleri ile birliktelik gösteren konut alanlarında dönem karakteristikleri tipik özellikler gösterseler de dönem aralıklarında 1960'lı yıllara kadar geçişli bir değişim görülür. Bu geçişli değişimlere bakıldığında 1960'lara kadar bütünlüklü bir değişim izlenir. Bu bütünlüğün ilk bozulduğu dönem 1960, ikinci büyük kırılmanın ya da bozulmanın görüldüğü dönem 1980'ler sonr asıdır. Ancak 1980 sonrası değişim bir bütün olmaktan çok içinde barındırdığı çeşitlilik ile kenti kaotik ortama sokmuştur. Bu anlayış kentin o güne kadar oluşturduğu kent dokusunun kimliğini parçalar. Bu parçalanma ile birlikte kent fiziksel anlamda Cumhuriyetin oluşturduğu biçimsel bütünlükten uzaklaşır. Bu uzaklaşma kentte bunalımı başlatır. Her tasarımcı, bu bunalıma kendince çözüm aramaya başlar. Bu nedenle tezde, tüm kentlerimizi barındıran kimlik kırılması tehlikesine karşı, kültürel değerlerin yeni yerleşimler içinde nasıl etkilendirilebileceğine dair tartışma, bir öneri "kültürel mesaj" modeli içinde irdelenmeğe açılmaktadır. Bu model ile, kent sokağına ya da mahalle ölçeğindeki yerleşimlerin biçimsel olarak çevreye nasıl bir kimlik oluşturacağı grafik ifadelerden yola çıkılarak, bina kod' ları oluşturulacaktır. Bu kod'lar aracılığında çevre'nin biçimselliğine bilgi katkısında bulunulacaktır. Dolayısıyla "kimlik" sorununa her tasarımcının tasarım oluşturmada, bireysel katkılarının yanısıra bilimsel katkılar aracılığında girdiler elde ederek, fiziksel ortama kimlik katılabilinecektir.|
The housing areas in city - like spaces, have a significant aspect in forming "identity" of this location. Ankara city has been in growth process in a speedy way be the establishment of Republic. Together with this transformation, the requirement for housing has increased. The most updated problem of the first years of the Republic, has been the housing requirement. During this period, for meeting the housing deficiency, various "housing design" searches were tried. (Housing in the form of single house / housing in the form of apartment building). During the era in which the Republic was declared, the architectural view which was dominant country - wide, is the 1st National Architectural Movement. Within this view, housing movement has been developed. This view however, is in the form of implementing Seljuk and Ottoman architecture jointly. The view, with its this situation, has been in contrary to the consideration structure of the Republic towards the West. For this reason, this formalism, had a short life. It is necessary to arrange this the conflicting ambient. The view on making this arrangement through a new city planning, has been accepted in Ankara. However with this city plan, Ankara has been put into old city / new city conflict. Old city has been almost excluded. A discrimination has been lived in the city as socially and physically. The housing of the new city have extended to the South of the city, beginning from Sıhhiye. These housings within the new settlement, had been completely strange to old settlement and its housing. The first estangement in the city, has been lived with this plan. The 2nd National Architectural movement happened later on. Within this movement, approach has been made to the problem of identity, in academic environments. The view to provide housing identity, by analyzing the old Turkish houses, has been dominant. However, the Internaional Architectural Movement in the West, prevented the use of this view spread wide. Because the community and the ideology that managed the community, was not on the part of old. A new architectural style should be presented to the community which was going to be renewed. Thus the housing areas of the city are introduced to modern architectural movement and an attitude towards modern one was taken. This situation has set the city in "modern identity". Then Ankara city is promoted as a modern city on the country level. Ankara, with its mis situation, has been a sample city. A difference of understanding has been formed between the housing samples in the first years of the modern period and the samples constructed after this period. The housing areas of the last period, has set some districts on an anonymous identity, which is a situation that excludes the first modern attitude of the city and breaks out of it. This attitude continued to 1980s. After 1980, an interrogation of modern architecture and modern city has been made in whole of the world and in Turkey. The cites have been similar to each other for being modern. Our cities have been living the problem of being without identity for which they carried out various disciplines and studies for the solution of this problem. The arise of Post-modernism has been legitimate for this reason. Post-modernism has been claiming to replace the lost identities. However this view looked at the solution of identity problem individually. In an universe which was going to be globe, architecture was going to globe also. Designers approached this problem individually and produced solutions. These solutions have been restricted with the own knowledge and skill levels of each designer. On the other hand, housing which has been and important merchandise in our day, join with the identity problem. Designer or architecture deemed it as an important vehicle in presenting himself to the market. Thus our city areas have been in an effort of "being different" in an unbelievable way. This situation arises being various excessively and being aesthetic excessively. These environments have been accepted so much that they have become legitimate, whether desired or not, within the community. Thus within this limitlessness envionment, Ankara, where there is the coexistence of everything, has been left to a structuring process which has no future. The new architectural language created, is conflict. This environment which our cities live in, is being without identity in physical meaning. In order to overcome this crisis, it is necessary to discuss the problem title academically. The formation of all imaginative memory medium of our cities, of today, of yesterday, is necessary to remedy the situation. As the principles of image setting based on knowledge :. Random images. Association images. Coding. Type and typologies are the used images. Yenimahalle, Gaziosmanpaşa, Petekevler and 14 Mayıs Evleri from the old settlement places of Ankara ; on the other hand, Konut Kent and Ümitköy settlements from the new settlements, from the research plans of this thesis. The profiles of the streets / districts through the photographs of streets selected by random sampling method in the above mentioned areas, have been obtained by carrying out. Emptiness - fullness. Height. Projections. Roof styles analysis. Through these profiles, obtained for each settlement, matrix has been made. Matrix values are used as ;. Repetition. Permeability. Metaphor. Singularity The measurement of the code values of street profiles, will lbe obtained through this matrix. Graphics, compensate with values such as (+), (+-), (-) as "formative codes". When code value are used how much or less in graphs, are observe. Depending on this observation, the mostly used code values, in that street profile, are determined. In the land studies carried out in accordance with these determinations, a general characteristics could not been found. However, the situation aimed, is the existance of such a characteristics. The tendency for a general characterization in the tested envirmonment, will effect the formation of the new envirmonment, likely to be carried out in future. For this reason, the implementation of environmental evaluation analysis method, gains importance. The problem is by carrying out these coding studies in an academic media, to bring them in a readily available information. When these information are readily available information, their usability may become feasible and it seems that they may provide the compatibility of implementations with healthy identity. However the formation of these infiormation, requires them to be carride out in an academic media. We can call this information forming media as CODE FORMATION BANKS. We are in the opinion that nor carrying out the above mentioned media, will increase the problem, in stead of solving the crisis, related with the physical identity of our cities. Because the solutions, independent from the information media, will cause the city / cities be paralyzed as dispersed - unrelated and individual studies from each other.
|Description:||Tez (Doktora)-- İTÜ Fen Bil. Enst., 1998|
Thesis (Ph.D.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 1998
|Appears in Collections:||Mimarlık Tarihi Lisansüstü Programı - Doktora|
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