Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/15262
Title: İstanbul Metro Çıkışlarının Yaya-taşıt İlişkileri Çerçevesinde Değerlendirilmesi: kadıköy-kartal Metro Hattı Örneği
Other Titles: Evaluation Of The Metro Exits In Istanbul With Respect To The Pedestrian-vehicle Relationship: Kadikoy-kartal Metro Line Case Study
Authors: Ocakçı, Mehmet
Keskiner, Büşra Selen
10067077
Kentsel Tasarım
Urban Design
Keywords: İstanbul
Metro Sistemleri
Metro Çıkışları
Ulaşım
Yaya-taşıt İlişkileri
Erişilebilirlik
İşlevsellik
Kentsel Algı
Sembolik İfade
Istanbul
Metro System
Metro Exits
Transportation
Pedestrian-vehicle Relationship
Accessibility
Functionality
Urban Perception
Symbolic Expression
Issue Date: 4-Mar-2015
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Abstract: Kentlerdeki hızlı gelişme ve büyüme, nüfus artışı ve artan teknolojik imkânlar sürekli hareketlilik içerisinde olan kent mekânlarını değiştirmektedir. Fiziksel mekân ve sosyal mekân birbirlerinden etkilenmekte, bu mekânlarda değişmeler yaşandıkça kentteki arazi kullanımı ve ulaşım gibi sistemler de zamanla değişmektedir. Hareketlilik, insanın en temel ihtiyaçlarından olup kentlerde toplu taşıma sistemleriyle sağlanmaktadır. Değişen günlük yaşam koşulları ve hayat standartları, zamanın öneminin her geçen gün daha da arttığını göstermektedir. Büyük kentlerde ulaşımda geçirilen zaman düşünüldüğünde hızlı ulaşıma olan ihtiyaç artmaktadır. Özellikle İstanbul gibi özel araca bağımlılığın yüksek ve toplu taşıma kullanım oranlarının düşük olduğu metropollerde trafikte harcanan zaman kaybı oldukça fazladır. Toplu taşıma sistemleriyle erişilebilirliğin sağlıklı bir şekilde sağlanması, modern toplumlarda gelişmişlik göstergesidir. Özellikle raylı sistemlerin etkin bir biçimde kullanıldığı ülkeler trafikten kaynaklanan sorunları gelişmesini tamamlayamayan ülkelerde olduğu gibi yoğun olarak yaşamamaktadırlar. Karayolu trafiği yoğun olan gelişmesini tamamlayamayan kentler, son yıllarda raylı sistemlere yönelmişlerdir.  Kentlerdeki arazilerin yoğun kullanılması, arazi değerlerinin yüksek olması ve ulaşımda gelişen teknolojiyle güneş ışığına olan ihtiyacın kalkmasıyla ulaşım sistemleri yerin altına alınmıştır. Metro sistemleriyle böylece kent içinde hızlı, güvenli, sistematik bir erişim sağlamaktadırlar.  Metro sistemlerinin iki nokta arasında hızlı erişimi sağlamasının yanı sıra, metro istasyonlarının çıkış mekânları da insanı kentle buluşturması açısından önemlidir. Yer altından yer yüzüne çıkıldıktan sonra asıl varılmak istenen hedefe erişimin doğru istasyon yer seçimleri ve tasarımıyla sağlanmış olması gerekir. Yayaların metrodan çıktıktan sonra başka bir ulaşım sistemine aktarma yapmaları veya yaya olarak devam etmeleri durumları metro çıkışlarındaki yaya-taşıt ilişkileri olarak değerlendirilmektedir.  İstanbul metro çıkışlarının yaya-taşıt ilişkileri çerçevesinde değerlendirilmesi kapsamında örnek alanın Kadıköy-Kartal metro hattı seçildiği tez çalışmasının amacı kent içindeki ulaşım mekânlarını ve kentin düğüm noktalarını oluşturan metro istasyonlarının tasarımında, yaya-taşıt ve yakın çevre ilişkilerinin kentle uyumlu bir şekilde kurulabilmesi için erişilebilirliğin, işlevselliğin ve sembolik algının sağlanmasının önemini vurgulamaktır. Belirlenen amaç ve hedefler doğrultusunda geliştirilen hipoteze göre; metro istasyon çıkış noktalarının kentsel ulaşım sistemleriyle bütüncül olarak değerlendirilmesi, bireyin kent içi erişilebilirlik ve işlevsellik düzeyini, sembolik ifadesi ise bireyin kentsel algı düzeyini etkiler. Tez çalışmasında literatür araştırması yönteminin yanı sıra haritalardan ve şehircilik analizlerinden yararlanılmıştır. Çalışma alanında fotoğraflama ve anket yöntemi uygulanmıştır. İstasyonlarda ve internet ortamında yapılan 150 adet anketten sayısal veriler elde edilmiştir. Kadıköy-Kartal metro hattının istasyonları incelenerek seçilen 5 adet istasyonda yapılan gözlemlerden ise mekânsal veriler elde edilmiş ve değerlendirilmiştir. Metro çıkış noktaları, günlük ulaşımlarda her gün kullanılan mekânlardır. İnsan hayatında önemli bir yeri olan metro çıkış noktalarının bir kamusal mekân olarak tasarımı yapılırken üst ölçekten mekândaki en ince ayrıntıya kadar incelenmesi gerekir. Metro sistemlerinin kent içinde erişilebilir olması, diğer toplu taşıma sistemleriyle bağlantılarının kurulmasıyla ilgilidir. Metro çıkış mekânının yakın çevresiyle birlikte çözülmesi, kent ölçeğinde güzergâh ve istasyon yer seçiminden yakın çevredeki bir otobüs durağına gidişteki yaya konforunu sağlayacak elemanlara kadar bütüncül bir planlama yaklaşımı gerektirmektedir. Metro istasyon çıkışları, kent içinde kullanıcıların ihtiyaçlarını karşılayacak düzeyde işlevlendirilmelidir. Bunun yanı sıra işlevsellik, istasyon çıkışına kamusal mekân niteliği kazandırmak ve kentin çekim merkezleri ve düğüm noktalarını oluşturan metro çıkışlarının daha etkin kullanıması sağlanmaktadır. Kentsel algı ve sembolik ifade düzeyi kamusal mekânlara erişilebilirliğini etkilemekte ve kent kimliğini yansıtmaktadır. Kentsel imgeler, kişilerde kent algısını oluşturur. Böylece mekânlar özgün, erişilebilir ve kent içi ulaşımı sağlamış olurlar.  Yapılan çalışmalar ve elde edilen bilgilerden yola çıkarak ulaşılan sayısal ve mekânsal verilere göre; metro istasyon çıkışlarının yaya-taşıt bağlantılarındaki sorunları örnek alan olarak seçilen Kadıköy-Kartal metro hattının istasyon çıkışları üzerinden erişilebilirlik, işlevsellik, kentsel algı ve sembolik ifade kapsamında değerlendirilmiştir. Literatürden, anketlerden ve gözlemlerden elde edilen veriler doğrultusunda hipotez doğrulanmış olup, kentsel ulaşım sistemlerinin birbirleriyle ve metro çıkış noktalarıyla bütüncül olarak değerlendirilmesiyle birlikte kent içi erişilebilirlik, işlevsellik ve sembolik ifade düzeyi olumlu yönde etkilenmektedir.
Rapid development and extension in the cities, as well as population growth and improvements in technology, change the constantly mobile urban environments. Physical and social environments are affected and changed by each other, and as a result, change the urban land utilization and transportation sytems in time. Mobility, which is one of the basic needs of humans, is provided by the public transportation in cities. Changing daily living conditions and life standards show the increasing importance of time management. The need in faster transportation is increased due the time spent for transportation in big cities. Time wasted during transportation is especially high in metropolitants like Istanbul where private vehicle dependency is  high and public transporation usage rate is low. Properly providing accessibility through public transportation is a sign of civilization in modern societies. Especially in the countries where rail systems are efficiently used, traffic-related problems are not experienced as intense as in under-developed countries. Burgeoning cities where road haulage is intense are tended towards rail systems in the recent years. Transportation systems are moved to underground due to the dense land use, high value of properties, and lack of sunlight need related to the improved technologies. As a result fast, safe and systematic access is provided in cities through underground systems. Besides providing fast transportation between two places, metro exits where people meets the city are also important. After leaving the underground, reaching to the desired arrival point should be enabled by the proper site selection and design of the metro stations. Circumstances of interchanging to another transportation vehicle after leaving metro or proceeding their journey as pedestrians are considered as pedestrian-vehicle relationships at the metro exits. Because of the physical conditions of Istanbul, transportation systems which are linearly proceeding according to the city macroform are changed with the increasing importance of metro and rail systems in the new millenium. Despite of the improvements of the rail systems, traffic-related problems still present in Istanbul and in fact increase day by day.  In the study of evaluation of metro exits in Istanbul with respect to the pedestrian-vehicle relationships; M4 Kadıköy-Kartal Metro line, the first metro line of the Anatolian side, is the latest example of metro-city integration with its pedestrian roads and other transportation systems. M4 line which put into service in 2012 serves for a more linearly propagated residential area, compared to the European side, with a different land use policy. M4 line is examined for pedestrian-vehicle relationships because of having the metro stations on the highway and on cloverleaf juntions, as a result of being underneath the D-100 highway, and the poor connection of the metro line with other transportation systems and with the city.  Purpose of the thesis on evaluation of the metro exits in Istanbul with respect to the pedestrian-vehicle relationships, Kadikoy-Kartal Metro line case study, is to emphasize the importance of accessibility, functionality and establishment of the symbolic perception for design of metro stations in order to create compatibility between city and the relationships of pedestrians, vehicles and their surrounding environments. Objectives determined according to purpose of the thesis are; • creation of the pedestrian-vehicle connections properly to provide strong accessibility, • adding the functionality of being a public space to metro stations besides being the connection points of transportation in the city. • in a symbolic manner, giving a new meaning to the metro exits as a member of the urban identity, and investigation and evaluation of pedestrian-vehicle relationships for the Kadikoy-Kartal metro line. According to the hypothesis developed with respect to the aims and purposes; handling the metro exits as a whole with the other urban transportation systems would affect the urban accessibility and functionality of individuals while the symbolic perception affects the urban perception level of individuals. All stations of the Kadikoy-Kartal metro line are examined and their primary and secondary utilizations are classified according to their immediate vicinity and the interchange stations to other transportation systems. Five metro exits which respresent characteristics of all metro exits are determined and examined. The chosen metro stations are Kadikoy, Ayrilikcesme, Unalan, Bostanci and Kartal metro stations.  The utilization of their immediate vicinity and the interchange stations to other transportation systems are the main reasons to choose Kadikoy, Ayrilikcesme, Unalan, Bostanci and Kartal metro exits as the references stations. Besides being a local interchange station in the downtown, Kadikoy metro station serves to one of the most important trade districts of Istanbul. Ayrilikcesme station is a metropolitan interchange station due to its connection with Marmaray and it is classified as a primary utilization area for being located next to the Nautilus Shopping Mall. Besides being a metropolitan interchange station in a local scale, Unalan station is a commercially busy point for being next to the Akasya Shopping Mall. Even though Bostanci station seems like serving to a residential area, it is a very important transfer point for public transportation of the city. Kartal station shows different characteristics for serving to a neighbourhood in transformation from an industrial zone to a residential zone. City planning analyses and maps are used as well as literature investigation for the thesis study. Furthermore, photography and questionnaire methods are used in the research fields. Numerical data is obtained from 150 questionnaires which were done both online and manually at each metro station. In addition to these spatial data are obtained by the observations done in the reference metro stations. Metro exits are places which are used every day during transportation. Design of the metro stations, having an important role for the human life, as public spaces should be done on the upper scale and every detail should be considered carefully. Accessibility of metro stations are related to their connection with other transportation systems in the city. Evaluation of the metro exits with their surroundings require an integrative organization starting from the site selection to the affecting parameters on comfort of pedestrians on the way to a neighboring bus station .       Metro station exits should be functionalized to provide the needs of consumers. In addition to this, functionality is providing a place the qualification to be a public space and enabling the efficient utilization of the attraction centers and connection points in the city.  Urban perception and symbolic expression level affect the accessibility of represent the urban identity. Urban images create the urban perception for people. As a result, places can be unique and accessible, and provide the urban transportation.  According to accessibility evaluation of metro exits on the Kadikoy-Kartal metro line, most of the users think that it is hard reach to the connection points for other transportation systems and the pedestrian walkways are deficient and insecure. In case of situations where arrival is done using another vehicle, parking lots for bicycles and cars are needed. Furthermore users indicated that the crowd at the metro exits also affects the pedestrian and vehicle traffic. Since the main reason for using the metro is arriving the destination fast and on time, the time wasted between city and the metro stations has a negative effect on preference of metro systems.  According to the spatial observations; route choice is the leading problem for accessibility. Even though it is proper to have the metro under D-100 highway according to the city macroform of linearly propagating Istanbul, this situation makes it harder to reach the metro stations. Thus, changing the route of the metro during the project phase or supporting the metro line with vertical transportation connections can be two options to solve this problem. Metro line is put into service in 2012 but supporting south-north connections  which should have been organized in advance have not been provided yet. Metro stations and exit points on the current route are not sufficient enough to reach the desired destination places.  Having the metro exits mostly on the cloverleaf junctions is physically neither proper nor safe for the pedestrians who need to reach another transportation system. In addition to these, walking distance between metro and other transportation systems cause accessibility problems. According to the functionality evaluation of the metro exits on Kadikoy-Kartal metro line, most of the users preferred to have green spaces and parks at the metro exits. Besides this, exhibiton places and places where music bands can perform are requested. A need for parking lots is also indicated. It is stated by 61% of the questionnaire participants that they would use the subway exits as a public place if quality of the exits are improved by recreation and outdoor furnitures.  Spatial functionality problems can be indicated as; inevaluability of the metro exits as urban public spaces, lack of phsical elements in subway stations for being the interconnection points, lack of pedestrian-vehicle connections, and inevaluability of the metro exits for urban social activities. When metro exits are evaluated according to the statistical evidence for urban perception and symbolic expression, 53% of the users stated that they can understand which station they are at, and 67% of them stated that they can notice the metro entrance from far away but the perceived urban elements are mostly signboards and guidances. As a result it can be said that, an urban image do not form on memory of people and users have a tendency to act according to guidances instead of their perceptions. Furthermore, 55% of the questionnaire participants from the Kadikoy-Kartal metro line users indicated that design of the metro exits are ‘very important’ for the pedestrian-vehicle accessiblity. According to spatial evaluations, lack of visual images next to the signboards and having ordinary, monotonous designs instead of designs that can represent a unique urban id are observed as the urban perception and symbolic expression problems. Despite of being an urban space, metro station exits on the Kadikoy-Kartal line do not show properties of neither urban interconnection points nor urban public spaces according to accessibility, functionality and symbolic expressions. Neither finished nor ongoing underground projects of Istanbul are sufficient in human and urban space scales. According to the results obtained from the evaluation of the metro exits in Istanbul with respect to the pedestrian-vehicle relationships, handling the metro exits as a whole with the other urban transportation systems affects the urban accessibility and functionality of individuals while the symbolic perception affects the urban perception level of individuals. Thus, a systematic approach for planning and designing is required continuity of transportation and sustainability of urban spaces.  Based on the studies and obtained information; accessibility, functionality, urban perception, and symbolic expressions are investigated according to the obtained quantitative and spatial data for the pedestrian-vehicle connection problems at the metro exits, under the case study of Kadikoy-Kartal metro line. Hypothesis is verified with the data obtained from literature, questionnaires and observations, and by handling the metro exits as a whole with other urban transportation systems urban accessibility, functionality and the symbolic perception can be positively affected.
Description: (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015
(M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2015
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/15262
Appears in Collections:Kentsel Tasarım Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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