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|Title:||Kocaeli Bahçecik Amerikan Misyoner Okulu chambers Hall Binası Koruma Projesi|
|Other Titles:||Kocaeli Bahçecik American Missionary School Chambers Hall Building Conservation Project|
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science And Technology
|Abstract:||Chambers Hall Binası, Osmanlı döneminde Kocaeli’de bir Ermeni yerleşim yeri olan Bahçecik’te (Bardizag) Amerikan Protestan misyoner örgütü American Board tarafından kurulan Bitinya Lisesi’nin (Bithynia High School) günümüze ulaşan üç yapısından biridir. 1906 yılında inşaatı tamamlanan yapı, Bitinya Lisesi Mezunlar Derneği’nin yardımlarıyla inşa edilmiş ve Bitinya Lisesi’ne bağışlanmıştır. Okulun yöneticiliğini yapan Robert Chambers’ın anısına yapıya “Chambers Hall” ismi verilmiştir. Üst katı toplantı salonu, alt katı jimnastik/spor salonu ve okuma odası olarak kullanılan yapı 1915 tehciri uyarınca Bahçecikli Ermenilerin başka bölgelere göç ettirilmesi nedeniyle işlevsiz kalmıştır. Cumhuriyet Dönemi’nde bir dönem mermer atölyesi, uzun bir süre tavuk çiftliği, ardından mantar üretim yeri olarak kullanıldığı bilinen yapı günümüzde kullanılmamaktadır. Yapı, aynı parselde bulunan sarnıç ve güneybatısındaki parselde bulunan yine Bitinya Lisesi yerleşkesine ait konut yapısıyla birlikte 1991 yılında korunması gerekli taşınmaz kültür varlığı olarak tescil edilmiştir. Farklı işlevlerle kullanıldığı dönemlerde yapılan niteliksiz müdahalelerle özgünlüğünü kısmen yitiren yapıda zamana ve bakımsızlığa bağlı bozulmaların da oluştuğu gözlenmiştir. Yapının bozulma sürecinin durdurulması, mevcut hasarlarının giderilmesi ve niteliksiz eklerden arındırılarak özgün durumuna kavuşturulabilmesi için acil olarak onarıma ihtiyaç duyduğu görülmektedir. Bu tezin amacı, kültür varlığı değeri olan yapının ayrıntılı bir biçimde belgelenmesi ve bir koruma projesi hazırlanarak yapının gelecek nesillere aktarılmasının sağlanmasıdır. Bu amaç doğrultusunda hazırlanan tez yedi bölümden oluşmaktadır. İlk bölümde çalışmanın amacı, kapsamı ve kullanılan yöntemler anlatılmıştır. İkinci bölümde yapının bulunduğu Bahçecik Beldesi’nin tarihsel gelişimi, üçüncü bölümde kısaca American Board olarak anılan “American Board of Comissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM)” adlı Protestan misyoner örgütü, Osmanlı topraklarındaki teşkilatlanması, örgütçe kurulan eğitim kurumları ve amaçları, örgütçe inşa edilen okul yapılarının mimari özellikleri, Bahçecik (Bardizag) istasyonundaki teşkilatlanması, örgütçe açılan Bitinya Lisesi ve okul için inşa edilen binalar hakkında ayrıntılı bilgi verilmiştir. Dördüncü bölümde yapının plan, cephe, yapım tekniği ve malzeme özellikleri ile mimari öğeleri hakkında ayrıntılı bilgi verilmiş, yapıdaki bozulmalar ve nedenleri anlatılmıştır. Beşinci bölümde yapının özgün dönemine ait fotoğraflar ışığında yapının inşa edildiği dönemdeki mimarisi, altıncı bölümde ise hasarlarının giderilmesi ve niteliksiz eklerden arındırılarak özgün durumuna kavuşturulması kapsamında önerilen müdahale kararları anlatılmıştır. Son bölümde ise bu çalışma sonucunda ulaşılan düşünce anlatılmıştır. Çalışma kapsamında yapının mevcut durumu fotoğraflar ve hazırlanan rölöve çalışmasıyla belgelenmiştir. Yapıda kullanılan malzemeler, yapı üzerinde oluşan hasarlar ve yapının geçirdiği değişikliklerin rölöve üzerinden lejantlarla gösterildiği malzeme, hasar ve kronolojik analiz paftaları hazırlanmıştır. Yapının restitüsyon çizimleri, çalışma kapsamında önerilen müdahale (onarım) kararlarının rölöve üzerinden lejantlarla gösterildiği müdahale paftası ile onarım sonrasında yapının yeniden kullanımına yönelik restorasyon projesi/yeni kullanım projesi hazırlanmıştır.|
Chambers Hall is one of the three buildings of Bithynia High School which have survived to present day and located in Bahçecik (Bardizag), an Armenian settlement at Ottoman period. Bithynia High School was built by one of the biggest American protestant missionary organization, known as American Board which was founded in Boston in 1810. The building is located in Kocaeli province, Başiskele county, Bahçecik local, Şehit Ekrem quarter, 3445 parcel. It is situated at the south of the gulf of Izmit, about 5 kilometers away from the Marmara Sea, at an altitude of 300 meters. Chambers Hall building is ground plus one storey. There is no connection between floors. The ground floor entrance is from the northwest façade, and first floor entrance is from southeast façade. The building consists of two main venue in ground and first floor which are rectangular formed, built of stone masonary technique and located in northeast-southwest direction. There is another venue in first floor which is in southwest direction and built in timber frame. This space has been built on wooden columns on the ground floor. Subsequently, two more venue was added in ground floor by surrounding the space with briquet walls where the wooden colomns are located. All of the original windows and doors openings are arched except first floor entrance door. Most of the openings are partly or totally closed by walls afterwards. Most of the wood/metal windows and doors are not authentic. Only the windows and the doors in the entrance space of the first floor are authentic. Deterioration like material loss and corruptions are seen in authentic wood elements. Brick beams and moldings of masonary stone walls and wood beams and moldings of wood frame walls are decoration elements of the building. Material loss and corruptions are seen in wood beams and moldings. The walls of the main venues in ground and first floor are rubble stone walls with brick flacks. The walls of the entrance space in ground floor are wood frame walls with lath-and-plaster. Briquet, hollow brick, rubble stone and clay brick are used in the walls which are built later. The authentic walls are plastered and painted. In some surfaces paint and plaster losses are seen. The roof of the building is wooden suspended roof covered with marsailles tiles. The roof significantly has deflection. The roof of the annex is wood and covered with marsailles tiles. Any documents about the date on which construction of the building has started could not be reached. In the newspaper called “The Orient” which had published weekly in İstanbul between 1910-1922 by American Board missionaries, it was indicated that the construction of the building was finished by 1906. It was built by the help of Bithynia High School Alumni Association and was donated to Bithynia High School. “Chambers Hall” name was given to the building for the memory of school manager Robert Chambers who managed the school for 22 years since 1891. Upper floor was built as a meeting room and the ground floor was built as gymnastics/sports hall and a reading room. In the book called “Bahçecik Tarihi” which was written by Murat Bayram and Süleyman Pekin. it is indicated that the upper floor had been used as a church and the ground floor had been used for various school activities. After the deportation law which was issued in 27th May of 1915, Bahçecik Armenians were relocated to the other parts of the empire and Bithynia High School was closed. After that the building remained functionless. At republic period the building was used as marbel workshop before 1965, poultry farm between 1965-1995 and mushroom production plant between 1995-2002. The building is obsolete since 2002 and this situation accelerates the deterioration process of the building. In accordance with the Cultural and Natural Heritage Protection Law numbered 2863; Chambers Hall building, a cistern in the same parcel and a housing which belongs to Bithynia High School in southwest parcel (3465 parcel) were registred as cultural assets in 1991. The building has lost its authenticity partially by the unqualified interventions which were maden when it had been used for different functions, also depending on time and lack of maintenance deteriorations are seen at the building. To stop deterioration of the building, to repair current damages and to remove later additions of poor quality in order to restore the original status of the building, the building needs repair urgently. This thesis’s aim is to keep the building which is survived to peresent day from the Ottoman settlement in Bahçecik and Bithynia High School, for future generations by preparing a detailed documentation and conservation project. For this purpose, this thesis consists of seven chapters. In the first chapter, aim and scope of the work also the methods used are described. In second chapter the historical development of Bahçecik town, in the thirth chapter a summary of Protestant missionary organization called “American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions (ABCFM)” known as “American Board” with its organizational structure in the Ottoman territory, detailed information on educational institutions and their aims, architectural properties of the school buildings which were built by American Board in the Ottoman territory, organization of Bahçecik station, information about Bithynia High School and buildings that were built for this school by this organization were given. In the fourth chapter location, history, plan, facade, construction techniques and materials specifications and architectural components of the building are given in detail, deteriorations and their reasons are explained. In the light of existing trails on the building and photographs from the past, original architectural structure of the building (restitution drawings) is given in the fifth chapter. Suggestions in order to restore original state by repairing current deteriorations, removing later additions of poor quality and re-use proposal are given in the sixth chapter. In the last chapter conclusions are given. In the scope of this work, present situation of the building is documented by photographs and architectural survey drawings. Materials used in the building and the deteriorations depending on time, lack of maintenance and caused by user ınterventions are showed also in the analysis drawings. Chronological analysis that shows the changes in the building from the past to now, has been prepared by comparing photographs of the building taken in different times. Restitution drawings has been showing original state of the building, ıntervention drawings showing suggestions of repairing decisions with legends on the survey and conservation/new usage project describing usage of the building after conservation has been prepared. The building belongs to a person living abroad. The proprietor wants to use the building as a dwelling when he comes to Turkey. It is tought that the spatial arrangements for dwelling function might cause to lose the authenticity of the building so that it is not suggested to use the building as a dwelling. To use the building for social purposes, expropriation of the building by Culture and Tourism Ministry, local authorities (Başiskele Municipality or Kocaeli Metropolitan Municipality) or governorship is suggested. This building, the cistern in the same parcel and the house in the southwest parcel were the last remaining structures from the Ottoman settlement so that Bahçecik has been visited by Bahçecik Armenians. To meet the spatial necessity during these visits and the necessity of sociocultural space because of the increasing population of Bahçecik after the Marmara Earthquake in 1999, it is suggested to use the building as a Museum and Conference Hall. It is seen that this approach about the proposal function is parallel with the fifth article of Venice Charter (International Charter For The Conservation And Restoration Of Monuments And Sites). Re-use of the building is also thought as a way to transfer it to future generations and for the success of the conservation of the building continous maintenance program is also suggested. Simple investigations and repairs to be made at specified intervals will prevent big restoration interventions and reduce the repair costs. The building shed light to history of Ottoman settlement in Bahçecik, education history of Ottoman Empire and educational activities of missionary organizations in Ottoman Empire. With these properties and architectural features, it is seen that the building has the property of cultural asset to be protected. It is tought that, it is of capital importance to keep the building for future generations by preparing a detailed documentation and conservation project by this thesis.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2014|
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2014
|Appears in Collections:||Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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