Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/14097
Title: Beaux Arts Kökenli Bir Mimar Olarak Alexandre Vallaury’nin Meslek Pratiği Ve Eğitimciliği Açısından  kariyerinin İrdelenmesi
Other Titles: Alexandre Vallaury, An Architect With Beaux Arts Background : His Career As An Architect And A Professor
Authors: Batur, Afife
Say, Seda Kula
502072104
Mimarlık
Architecture
Keywords: Vallaury
Alexandre Beaux Arts Ondokuzuncu Yüzyıl Mimarlığı Eklektizm Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi
Vallaury
Alexandre Beaux Arts Nineteenth Century Architecture Eclecticism Ottoman Imperial School of Fine Arts
Issue Date: 5-Jan-2015
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Abstract: Ondokuzuncu yüzyıl sonu Osmanlı mimarlığının önemli bir figürü olan mimar Alexandre Vallaury (1850-1921), günümüze dek sınırlı sayıda bilimsel araştırmaya konu olmuştur. Halen kullanımda olan çok sayıda prestijli yapının mimarı olan Vallaury, Osmanlı Devleti'nin son yıllarında, özellikle başkent İstanbul'da, azımsanmayacak nitelik ve nicelikte mimari üretim yapmıştır. Ülkenin formel anlamda ilk mimarlık ve sanat okulu olan "Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi"'nin kurucu eğitimci kadrosunda yer alarak uzun yıllar burada mimarlık eğitimi veren mimar, bu çok yönlü kariyerinin yanısıra aile kökeni ve uluslararası ilişkileriyle de araştırmaya değer ilginç bir karakterdir.  Vallaury'nin aktif mesleki kariyerini sürdürdüğü iki Meşrutiyet arası yaklaşık otuz yıl, Türk mimarlığında ve özellikle başkent İstanbul'da çok farklı mimari akımların denenip uygulanabildiği ve gerek kentsel yaşam gerekse mimari uygulamalar anlamında çoğulcu ve liberal bir atmosferin hakim olduğu bir geçiş dönemidir. Bu süreç aynı zamanda, yeni yapı teknolojileri, yeni yapı programları ve yapı sektöründe uzman işgücüne büyük talebin olduğu yoğun bir imar ve kentsel gelişim dönemi olmasıyla da farklıdır. Vallaury bu dönemde aktif mesleki ve eğitimci kariyeriyle ülke mimarlığını etkileyen ve özellikle eğitimci rolüyle bir sonraki döneme geçişi hazırlayan figürlerden biri olarak dikkati çekmektedir. Vallaury'i bu role hazırlayan eğitim ve çevresel etkilere bakıldığında ise ilk gençliğinin on yılını geçirdiği Paris ve ciddi bir eğitim aldığı dönemin dünya çapında etkin bir kuruluşu olan École des Beaux Arts öne çıkmaktadır. Paris bu dönemde önemli kentsel dönüşümlere, büyük dünya sergilerine ve  yeni teknoloji uygulamalarına sahne olmaktaydı. École des Beaux Arts ise 1830'larda ülkedeki gelişime paralel olarak geçirdiği çalkantılar ve sonrasında okul bünyesinden çıkan güçlü kuramcıların diskurlarına sahip çıkarak Avrupa ve dünya mimarlığının yönlendirilmesinde söz sahibi olmaya devam etmekte ve özellikle Vallaury'nin öğrenciliği döneminde eklektizmi benimseyen bir kuruluş olarak ortaya çıkmaktadır. On yıldan  fazla süren Beaux Arts eğitimi, Paris görgüsü ve özellikle politik tutum, teknik yeterlik ve tarihsel referans saçayağında uzlaşmacı çözümler hedefleyen eklektizm diskurunun etkisi, Vallaury'nin mimar altyapısını oluşturmasında sn derece önemli rol oynamıştır. Mimar, az sayıda Beaux Arts referanslı mimardan biri ve bu altyapıya ve uzlaşmacı eklektizm anlayışına sahip bir uzman kişi olarak İstanbul'a dönüşünde, kısa sürede Osmanlılık-Türklük idealine uygun olarak toplumsal anlamda kapsayıcı ve kavrayıcı kültür politikalarını oluşturmaya çalışan Osman Hamdi Bey ekibinde kendine yer bulmuştur. Entelektüel anlamda güçlü bir söyleme sahip olan Osman Hamdi Bey, gerek Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi'nin Beaux Arts modeline göre kuruluşunda yaptıkları işbirliği, gerekse almasına vesile olduğu kamu ve özel kişi ve kuruluşlara ait yapı projeleri bağlamında Vallaury'nin mesleki kariyerinde ikinci en önemli etki olmuş olmalıdır.  Bu şekilde başlayan itibarlı kariyeri boyunca çok sayıda projeye imza atan ve çok sayıda öğrenci yetiştiren Vallaury, Osmanlı-Türk mimarlığında Beaux Arts Okulu'nun bellibaşlı temsilcisi olmuştur. Ülke mimarlığının bu önemli geçiş döneminde sözkonusu Beaux Arts altyapısıyla hem mimarlık pratiği hem de eğitimine dikkate değer katkı ve etkiler yapmıştır. Bu nedenle bu çalışmada Vallaury'nin kariyeri ve tasarım anlayışının, bir Beaux Arts okulu temsilcisi olarak Osmanlı-Türk mimarlığına yaptığı katkılar ve etkiler yönünden ele alınması benimsenmiştir.  Bu amaçla, öncelikle Vallaury'nin tasarım anlayışını oluşturan bileşenler, etkileyen faktörler ortaya konmuştur. Bu çerçevede öncelikle, mimarın aile kökeni, tabiyeti, ilişkileri, devlet görevleri gibi biyografik veriler incelenmiştir. Sonrasında, dönemin mimari faaliyet üzerinde etkili olan sosyo-ekonomik şartları ile Osman Hamdi Bey - Vallaury ilişkisi irdelenmiş ve mimarın yetişmesinde en önemli ve sistemli etken olarak o dönemde geçerli olan Beaux Arts Okulu mimari tasarım ilkeleri ayrıntılı şekilde incelenerek mimarın tasarım davranışı için değerlendirme ölçütleri oluşturacak şekilde maddeler halinde ortaya konulmuştur. Bu amaçla gerek yerli ve yabancı literatür taraması, gerekse arşiv araştırmalarından faydalanılmış; aynı zamanda Paris'te Ecole des Beaux Arts kampüsü ve dönem binalarında saha çalışması yapılmıştır. Sonraki adımda yine önceki bilimsel çalışmalar, arşiv taramaları ve literatür taramaları yoluyla belirlenen Vallaury yapılarından karşılaştırma ve analize baz oluşturacak bir seçki oluşturulmuştur. Bu seçki dahilindeki yapılar için gerek sahada gerekse arşivlerde yoğun çalışmalar yapılarak binalar Beaux Arts tasarım ilkelerine göre analiz edilmiş ve her biri için Vallaury'nin tasarımsal tercihleri de tespit edilmeye çalışılmıştır. Nihayetinde ayrı ayrı sonuçlar bir araya getirilerek Vallaury'nin tasarım davranışı, Beaux Arts ilkelerinin sonuç ürünlerindeki ağırlığı değerlendirilmiş ayrıca mimarın kariyeri boyunca oluşturduğu ve farklı tarihsel referansların ağırlıkta olduğu tasarım sözlüğü bina analizler yoluyla derlenmeye çalışılmıştır.  Vallaury'nin ülke mimarlığına katkısının bir başka ve önemli boyutu olan Sanayi-i Nefise Mektebi mimarlık eğitimi de ayrı bir başlık altında incelenerek, ulaşılabilen kısıtlı kaynaklar çerçevesinde mimarın uyguladığı eğitimin niteliği ve sonuçları, okul müfredat ve kuralları, yapılan projelerin konuları, ilk mezunların mimari faaliyetler çerçevesinde ortaya konulmaya çalışılmıştır.
Architect Alexandre Vallaury (1850-1921), an important figure of late nineteenth century Ottoman architecture, has so far been subject of a limited number of scientific researches. He had carried out a significant number of outstanding projects, authored numerous prestigious buildings in late Ottoman cities, mainly in Istanbul. The already impressive number of known Vallaury buildings increases continually, as new archive documents are being unearthed. He also had been among the founder professors of Imperial School of Fine Arts, a pioneering Ottoman academy, which introduced the country the formal education in architecture and fine arts. Vallaury taught here for twenty-five years, graduating many young architects who responded to the growing demand for expert workforce in architecture with many projects. Apart from this multi faceted career, Vallaury who is an Ottoman levantine born in Istanbul, is an interesting character with intricate family roots and international relations. As is, the thirty active years of Vallaury's career between 1879-1909 correspond with the intermediate period between the two Ottoman constitutions. In terms of urban life and architecture, especially in Istanbul, it was a interval of transition when a pluralist, tolerant, liberal atmosphere reigned and many different styles were implemented. Moreover it was a time when urban development was at its peak in Istanbul and other port cities, with a soaring demand for new building technology, materials and programmes as well as architectural and engineering expertise. Vallaury, who carried out a very active professional and academic career in this period stands out as an architecture in key positions contributing greatly to the country's architectural activities and owing to his professorship one who provided guidance to new architects for transition to the new century.  Not surprisingly, the background that had prepared Vallaury for this role included familial and environmental impacts on his life as well as his architectural education, where the name of École des Beaux Arts stands out as the most renowned and successful school of arts and architecture of its time. The education of Vallaury correspond to a time when the school, having overcome the chaotic times and disputes of 1830s with reforms and strong  architectural discourses impacting European and world architecture, enjoyed a worldwide success and reputation. Sticking partly to its traditional values and the composition concept developed to perfection over many years, the school then mostly favored eclecticism, the trend of the era that compromised political, technical and historical concerns of users. These years also saw Paris transforming greatly due to Haussman's urban operations and witnessing the latest developments in building technology and material owing to world exhibitions.  As such Vallaury's more than a decade long education in École des Beaux Arts and his visual experiences of Paris, as well as the strong impact of eclecticism were the factors that shaped his architectural identity. Being among the few to have completed his education in École des Beaux Arts, and as a professional equipped with the comprimising culture of eclecticism, he swiftly found a place in the  team of Osman Hamdi Bey, who had been working on building up comprehensive and all-embracing cultural policies that would favor the Ottoman-Turkish nationalistic ideal.  Osman Hamdi Bey, also an old student of École des Beaux Arts, was no wonder an intellectual with an influential discours, not to overlook the fact that he introduced Vallaury to influential circles of the Ottoman bureaucracy. Hence , keeping in mind the cooperation they performed in founding the Ottoman Imperial School of Fine Arts modelled according to École des Beaux Arts , as well as the commissions Vallaury received and finalised owing to Osman Hamdi Bey's references, he must have been the second most important impact next to Beaux Arts education in building up a architectural identity. Following, Vallaury, having thus led such a honorable career, during which he authored many successful projects and graduated many architects, was the foremost representative of École des Beaux Arts in Ottoman-Turkish architecture. In this respect, his performance as a practicing architect and a professor must have reflected his Beaux Arts background, that is his contribution to Ottoman-Turkish architecture must have been shaped by the concepts and principles he acquired all along his long Beaux Arts experience. Therefore this thesis aims to assess and analyse Vallaury's contribution to Ottoman-Turkish architecture in terms of Beaux Arts design concepts and principles and as the most important representative of this school in Turkey. With this objective, this study first focuses on the components, factors that must have shaped Vallaury's notion of design. In this context, biographical data such as his familial roots and relations, nationalistic affiliations, work positions, memberships, etc were first brought to light. In parallel, the socio-economical conditions that probably played an important role on his career as well as the details of his relation with Osman Hamdi Bey were assessed. This part of the analysis depends mainly on primary sources such as official records and correspondence. In this step, the very rigorous archival research was complemented by a fortunate meeting with a close relative of Vallaury, who provided this research with valuable concrete data, especially about his life after 1909. Hence here, as unbiased as possible a picture of the underlying factors shaping Vallaury's career, was drawn. This picture finally enables us to pinpoint his affiliations, tendencies and goals in life.  As for the late nineteenth century conditions creating the demand for architecture, normally a research subject on its own, they were andled and focused upon according to the degree they interfered with Vallaury's activities. This evaluation is based upon some primary archival sources as well as several literature survey. Apparently the both the fast development of port cities and the fast development of building technologies determined at the time the setting for most eastern mediterranean urban activity, alongside some indigenous factors specific to country. A brief evaluation of these conditions determining architectural and urban activity in Ottoman Turkey are presented in forth chapter of this thesis. Last but not least, and with the aid of both primary sources and numerous former relevant scientific researches, were analysed the history and design principles of École des Beaux Arts. In this quest of analysing such a longlasting and dynamic design school, the efforts were focused on the post-1830 period, which naturally had set the valid atmosphere for Vallaury's education. The archival research and literature survey was also accompanied by onsite building analyses as well. Regarding Beaux Arts design concepts and principles as the most systematic factor behind Vallaury's design behaviour demanded the creation of a set of criteria against which Vallaury buildings could be assessed. Hence the thorough analysis of Beaux Arts architecture was finalised by producing a concrete itemised list of Beaux Arts design concepts and principles valid for last half of the nineteenth century. This list contained  both general Beaux Arts concepts, as well as principles of Labrouste, le-Duc and Garnier discourses, as well as those of eclecticism, since these were to shape Beaux Arts education in late nineteenth century. The study treats visual experience of Paris as part of Beaux Arts education, so this part of the study is complemented by the general characteristics and major buildings of urban transformations in Paris at this time. The creation of École des Beaux Arts campus is also treated with seperate attention as it was a model for the Imperial School of Fine Arts in Istanbul. Next step is the formation of a list of Vallaury buildings that is to be subject of assessment based on the itemised Beaux Arts criteria set prepared. The full list of Vallaury buildings is provided as an annex. This list for comparison is drawn from among this comprehensive table, to include those buildings whose authorship by Vallaury can be verified. The buildings were also chosen to evenly span his career and buildings of different function were preferred for analysis. This list, sorted by date, includes :  1.The Imperial School of Fine Arts and the Museum, in the garden of the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul 2.Cercle d'Orient Social Club, on Istiklal Street in Pera or Beyoğlu, Istanbul 3.The Headquarters of Ottoman Bank and Tobacco Régie, on Voyvoda Street , the finance center of Galata, Istanbul 4.Pera Palas Hotel, at Tepebaşı quarter of Pera/Beyoğlu. 5.The Headquarters of Administration of Public Debts, at Cağaloğlu, near the Istanbul Prefecture. 6.Prinkipo Palas Hotel,  7.The Imperial School of Medicine at Haydarpaşa, on Asian side of ıstanbul, between the Selimiye barracks and the Haydarpaşa port and railway station 8.The Customs Houses of Thessaloniki and Eminönü, on the ports of Thessaloniki and Eminönü respectively. The first item in this list treats the two buildings as a unity as they comprise the cultural campus created based on the model of École des Beaux Arts in Paris.As for the last item, it includes "sister" customs house buildings designed after probably similar concerns and one in Thessaloniki is the only Vallaury building outside Istanbul to be analysed by this study. The understanding of these eight items, called for on-site analysis and archival research in parallel. The data compiled for each building was evaluated according to Beaux Arts design principles seperately and also individual design preferences by Vallaury were also noted down for each building. The seperate works done for each building were then compared to find out common and differing characteristics and to determine to which degree Vallaury adopted Beaux Arts principles along different stages of his career. These seperate analyses were then combined to a single report that was to reflect all this findings in order. As is, Vallaury's design behaviour is accompanied by his effort to compile or create his own, characteristic vocabulary of architectural elements, especially with historical references. So the findings from the analyses of this list were collected to form a table of Vallaury's design vocabulary which is presented also as an annex. Vallaury's professorship in Imperial School of Fine Arts is no wonder another important dimension of his career. The efforts to analyse these  years were accompanied by heavy archival research.This thesis also aimed to unearth the first twentyfive years' course schedule, student projects, names of students and their works after graduation. At this point archival records proved to be partially inaccessible, as most were either destroyed by fires or not allowed to researchers. So though one objective was to put forward how and with which subjects the design studios were carried out in Imperial School of Fine Arts, very few findings were unearthened to be commented on. Similarly the matching of graduate names with realised buildings proved to be a strenuous task as most official records did not include surnames, however quite a number of graduates and their works could be found out. These findings and their assessments are included in the seventh chapter of this work.  Conclusively, this work analyses the impact of Beaux Arts education in Vallaury's works and attempts to put forward how his design behaviour evolved under this influence. Vallaury being a most prominent figure in late nineteenth century Ottoman architecture, this study treating this major aspect of his career and productions also vises to put forward clues as to which direction and under which influences Ottoman-Turkish architecture proceeded in the coming twentieth century.  No wonder, the revelation of new archival documents, as well as buildings by Vallaury or his students would help make further comments on the subject. This would also shed further light on how architecural education was shaped in Turkey. The treatment of this period's architecture as being influenced by Beaux Arts principles calls for other new areas of research which could not be handled in the limited time schedule of this thesis. These new research areas could include comparison of Beaux Arts graduates and implementations in neighboring old world centers such as Egypt, Greece or Persia as compared to those in Istanbul. The parallel execution of architectural and archaeological studies in Ottoman Turkey would also be a concern for further research, considering the École des Beaux Arts model and the combined function of museum and school in Imperial School of Fine Arts.
Description: Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2014
Thesis (PhD) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2014
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/14097
Appears in Collections:Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Doktora

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