Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/14088
Title: Türkiye İçin Konut Binalarının Aydınlatma Enerjisi Gereksinimi Açısından  değerlendirilmesine  ilişkin Bir Yaklaşım
Other Titles: An Assessment Approach For Energy Requirements Of  residential Buildings In Turkey
Authors: Yener, Alpin Köknel
Sümengen, Özlem
502072607
Mimarlık
Architecture
Keywords: Mimari Aydınlatma
Konut Aydınlatması
Görsel Konfor
Doğal Aydınlatma
Yapma Aydınlatma
Enerji Etkin Konut
Konutlarda Kullanıcı Davranışı
Architectural Lighting
Residential Lighting
Visual Comfort
Daylighting
Artificial Lighting
Energy Efficient Houses
User Behaviour
Issue Date: 30-Jun-2015
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science And Technology
Abstract: Dünyada giderek artan enerji ihtiyacı ve kaynakların sınırlı oluşu, binalarda enerjinin verimli kullanılmasına ilişkin çalışmaları gerekli kılmıştır. Konut binalarında tüketilen aydınlatma enerjisinin, dünyada ve Türkiye’de önemli bir yer tutması, konutlarda aydınlatma enerjisi performansı konusunda çalışmaların gerekliliğini ortaya koymaktadır. Konut binaları, kullanıcılarının demografik özellikleri, hacimlerin kullanılma süreleri ve eylem çeşitliliği açılarından diğer bina tipolojilerinden farklılık göstermektedir. Bu nedenle diğer tipolojiler için geçerli olan enerji tüketim modelleri ile bu yapı türünde gerçekçi sonuçlar elde edilmesi mümkün olamamaktadır. Bu çalışmada; EN 15193 ve ülkemizde yürürlüğe giren Binalarda Enerji Performansı Yönetmeliği BEP-TR standardında kapsam dışı bırakılmış olan konut tipolojisine ilişkin yeni bir yaklaşım geliştirilmiştir. Geliştirilen yaklaşım; konut hacimlerinde gerçekleşen eylemlere ilişkin görsel konfor koşullarının sağlanmasını temel almakta ve buna bağlı olarak yapma aydınlatma gücünün  belirlenmesi, hacimlerde oluşan günışığı aydınlığının ve farklı yönlenme durumlarının enerji gereksinimine etkisi ve konut kullanıcılarının farklılıklarını ortaya koyarak konut kullanılma sürelerinin belirlenmesini sağlayan  Konut-Kullanıcı-Mekan modeli olmak üzere 3 ana adımdan oluşmaktadır. Yapma aydınlatma sistemine ilişkin adımda konut hacimlerindeki tüm armatürlerin şebekeden çektiği güç hesaba katılmaktadır.  Bu değerler; konuta ait her  hacim  için hesaplanmakta ve ortak alanların da dahil edilmesi ile tüm binaya ait yıllık aydınlatma  enerjisi gereksinimi hesaplanabilmektedir. Çalışmanın günışığı etkisine ilişkin adımında; binanın günışığı potansiyeli belirlenerek aydınlatma enerjisi gereksiniminin günışığı etkisine bağlı olarak hesaplanması öngörülmektedir. Bu adımda farklı yönlenme durumlarının hesaplara dahil edilebilmesi için bir öneri  geliştirilmiştir. Konut-Kullanıcı-Mekan modelinde; kullanıcı davranışlarını ve mekan kullanımını içeren modeller geliştirilerek kullanıcı davranışının aydınlatma enerjisi gereksinimine olan etkisi ortaya konmaktadır. Bu adımda kullanıcı profilleri ve mekan kullanım süreleri temel alınarak bulanık kural tabanlı değişkenler sistemi ile senaryolar geliştirilmiş ve konuta özgü bu değişkenlerin aydınlatma enerji tüketimine etkisinin gerçekçi bir biçimde belirlenmesi hedeflenmiştir. Bu tez çalışmasında geliştirilen yaklaşım,  Türkiye’nin farklı yörelerinde bulunan konut örnekleri üzerinde uygulanarak ele alınan parametrelerin sonuçlara olan etkisi değerlendirilmiştir. Geliştirilen yaklaşım, mevcut konut binalarında aydınlatma enerjisi gereksiniminin gerçekçi bir biçimde hesaplanabilmesi ve buna bağlı olarak aydınlatma enerjisi tasarruf potansiyelinin belirlenebilmesi amacıyla kullanılabileceği gibi; bina tasarımı sürecinde aydınlatma enerji performansına yönelik değerlendirmelerin yapılabilmesi ve tasarımın optimizasyonu amacına da yöneliktir.
Today, efficient use of energy in buildings has become a fundamental subject because of the shortage of energy sources and increase of energy consumption. Rising importance of residential lighting energy consumption in the world and in Turkey reveals the necessity of new studies and researches on residential lighting energy performance. Residential buildings differ from other building typologies with their occupation period, occupant behavior, occupancy ratio and demographic characteristics. In Turkey, 45% of energy consumption is by buildings and 25% of the total consumption is by residental buildings. 20% of the total energy consumption is used for lighting, so lighting sector has the highest rate of energy consumption with 56%. This thesis based on the values of the role and importance of residential lighting consumption by specific user behaviour and family profile variability. Reduction of energy consumption for lighting systems is important when environmental and usage cost issues are taken into consideration. It could be possible to reduce energy consumption in buildings by using daylight efficiently and designing proper artificial lighting systems. Advanced daylighting systems help to reduce energy costs since they provide the possibility to control daylight. Unfortunately, the concept of “optimal cost” requires comparing all pros and cons of a system to name it as cost optimal. Due to their high investment costs, advanced daylighting systems cannot be preferred by the home users. This new technology provides to home users to gain required lighting with a conventional way while consuming less energy. Lighting energy consumed by residential buildings, has an effective rate both in the worlwide  and Turkey, so this proves an increasing rate of  research related to lighting of residential buildings. Residential buildings, differ from other typologies with their occupation period, user behaviour, family profile, and demographic characteristicis. Because of the different occupant reactions and behaviours at residential buildings, to determine the lighting energy requirement, the models which adapted to other typologies cannot give real results. So, the need of detailed computational stencil of national and international standards and regulations is obvious.  Lighting system is identified as an integral system of research in intelligent house concept for environment whilst being energy efficient is a fundamental issue. The advancements in technology for both natural and artificial lighting are essential part of the lighting design in intelligent houses. Some new technologies about lighting system are investigated by this topic. The use of daylighting systems can provide the control for effective lighting in residential buildings. The lighting of buildings requires a great amount of energy so in order to reduce lighting energy consumption, integration of daylight is of vital importance. Daylighting systems are the most efficient solutions for reduction of lighting energy as well as providing physical and psychological requirements of human beings as mentioned in many studies on relation between health and daylight topics. Daylighting can be introduced in the design phase of lighting systems in many ways, as developing technology lets the designers to choose a proper daylighting system among many possibilities. Today, by use of appropriate glazing and window systems, toplighting strategies, shading devices, light guiding systems and complex daylighting systems, it is possible to accomplish lighting energy saving in a maximum level and provide visual comfort. By the last years, phenomenal growth in economic development has brought about an urban and social transformation that yields an unprecedented change in the city’s physical outlook, social hierarchy and individual aspirations. They have a different attitude towards how life, work and recreation are going to be, than their parents. Users of residential buildings, started to be composed of young working couples without child or only one child, singles, old persons sometimes with nurses. These changes and differences of user profile, blazed to produce user behavior models, to be able to generate and determine them by numeric symbols Therefore, user behaviors can easily become a submeter of the building energy consumption.   EN 15193 Energy Performance of Buildings-Energy Requirements for Lighting Standard and BEP-TR Turkish National Building Energy Performance calculation methodology introduce a methodology to determine the lighting energy requirement and provide a numeric indicator for several typologies except residential buildings. In this thesis an EN 15193 based new approach is proposed to predict the lighting energy requirements of residential buildings. In this approach, ensuring the visual comfort conditions in residential buildings is implicated as a prerequisite before calculation of the lighting energy requirement. This approach consists of three main steps, which are; determination of artificial lighting system’s power, determination of the daylight dependency and development of a model, “Residential-Space-Occupancy” model, which predicts occupant’s behaviors and space use in residential area.  First step, related to artificial lighting system’s power has been determined taking into account total power supply of electric lighting devices. Following the calculation of total energy required for each room or zone, annual lighting energy can be calculated for the whole building. Through the step related with the daylight dependency, lighting energy consumption is calculated regarding the daylighting potential of the building. At this step, a proposal is developed in order to specify the differences related with the window orientations. In the step related to daylight, based on EN 15193 standard; according to geographical conditions, obstacles, lighting control according to daylight, volume-window dimensions and different directions,  the daylight effect is determined. In this thesis,, a model is proposed to be able to add calculations of the difference of daylight effect according to different directions and related to this calculation of lighting energy requirement. At the  step of the “residential space occupancy”, a new model is developed related to occupant behaviors and space use in residential area and their impact on lighting energy consumption is predicted. In this model, regarding residential space using and occupant behavior scenarios improved based on fuzzy ruler system.  User behavior models are calculation methods that aim to mimic how users interact with personal lighting controls such as light switches, blinds or window openings. A key finding from field studies on manual lighting and blind control in  buildings is, that even though occupants behave differently, they use their lighting and  blind controls consciously and consistently. Prediction of user behavior within the context of residential buildings is necessary to minimize energy consumption and provide visual comfort in the built environments. The main aim of using lighting control systems in buildings is lighting energy conservation and it is also possible to design these systems with respect to daylight. There has been extensive research studies focusing on development of intelligent residential building’s lighting systems by integrating data mining techniques equipped with sensors and actuators. Connecting the derived user behavioral patterns to building’s lighting energy and visual comfort management, it is possible to supply visually pleasing atmospheres as well as energy efficient lighting systems in residential buildings. In this approach, ensuring the visual comfort conditions in residential buildings is implicated as a prerequisite before calculation of the lighting energy requirement. This approach consists of three main steps, which are; determination of artificial lighting system’s power, determination of the daylight dependency and development of a model, “Residential Space Occupancy” model, which predicts occupant’s behaviors and space use in residential area.  Consequently, by using this approach prediction of lighting energy performance and  energy saving potential of residential buildings can be ensured in a realistic way. Additionally; utilization of this approach during the design process leads to several evaluations and design optimization in terms of lighting energy performance.
Description: Tez (Doktora) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015
Thesis (PhD) -- İstanbul Technical University, Institute of Science and Technology, 2015
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/14088
Appears in Collections:Mimarlık Lisansüstü Programı - Doktora

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