Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/14029
Title: Kombine Taşımacılık Ve Türkiye Uygulamaları
Other Titles: Combined Transport And Practices In Turkey
Authors: Çalışkan, Nurbanu
Fulser, Buket
10077202
İnşaat Mühendisliği
Civil Engineering
Keywords: Kombine Taşımacılık
Combined Transport
Issue Date: 24-Jun-2015
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Ulaştırma, ekonominin ve toplumsal gelişmenin temel öğesidir. Ulaştırma, modern ekonomilerde önemli bir faktördür. Ulaşım talebi gün geçtikçe artmaktadır. Ulaşım talebinin artışı yeni altyapı inşaatı ve pazarlara açılma ile karşılanamaz. Taşıma sisteminin, büyüme ve sürdürülebilir kalkınma taleplerini karşılamak için optimize edilmesi gerekmektedir. Modern bir taşıma sistemi ekonomik, sosyal ve çevre açısından sürdürülebilir olmalıdır. Ulaştırma sektörüne yönelik yapılan planlarda ekonomi, göz önünde bulundurulmalıdır. Küreselleşme ile ulaşım, haberleşme ve teknolojideki gelişmeler sonucunda üretim ve pazarlama uluslararası hale gelerek, ürünlerin güvenli, hızlı ve ekonomik bir şekilde teslim edilmesi önem kazanmıştır. Küreselleşme ile birlikte kombine taşımacılık daha da önemli hale gelmiştir. Pazarlama açısından düşünüldüğünde birçok şirket çevreye duyarlı taşımacılık alternatifi olduğundan kombine taşımacılığı tercih etmektedir. Ülkemizin Asya ile Avrupa arasında bir köprü konumunda olması, üç tarafının denizlerle çevrili ve önemli geçiş koridorlarında bulunması nedeniyle lojistik üs olma potansiyeli bulunmaktadır.  Bu amaç doğrultusunda hazırlanan tez çalışması, sekiz ana bölümden oluşmaktadır. Birinci bölümde konuya giriş yapılmış olup kombine taşımacılığın gelişim süreci ele alınmış ve tezin amacı ortaya konulmuştur.  İkinci bölümde taşıyıcının türüne göre karayolu, demiryolu, havayolu, denizyolu, iç suyolu, boru hattı taşımacılığı ve taşıma türüne göre tek türlü, çok türlü, türler arası, kombine taşımacılık olmak üzere ulaştırma sistemleri açıklanmıştır. Üçüncü bölümde kombine taşımacılığın amacı, kombine taşımacılığın temel bileşenleri ve konteyner taşımacılığı, araç sırtında taşımacılık, bi-modal taşımacılık olmak üzere kombine taşımacılık türleri anlatılmıştır. Dördüncü bölümde ulaştırma türü seçim kriterleri ele alınarak, karayolu, demiryolu, denizyolu, havayolu taşıyıcı türlerinin üstünlükleri ve zayıf yönleri ulaştırma türünün belirlenmesinde etkili olan maliyet, hız, güvenilirlik, esneklik, güvenlik, kapasite, yakıt tüketimi, çevre gibi faktörler göz önünde bulundurularak incelenmiştir. Beşinci bölümde Avrupa Birliği’nde kombine taşımacılık politikaları, ulaştırma sistemlerinin durumu, Trans-Avrupa ulaştırma ağları, Pan-Avrupa ulaştırma koridoru, Avrupa Kafkasya Asya ulaştırma koridoru gibi Avrupa ulaştırma ağları ve Avrupa’daki ana uluslararası bağlantılar üzerinde yapılan kombine taşımacılık incelenmiştir. Avrupa’daki başarılı kombine taşımacılık örnekleri verilerek, kombine taşımacılığın CO² emisyonu ve yakıt tüketimi üzerindeki etkileri belirtilmiştir. Altıncı bölümde Türkiye’de ulaştırma sistemlerinin durumuna, demiryolu ile konteyner taşıması, denizyolu ile konteyner taşıması, Ro-Ro, feribot taşıması olmak üzere kombine taşımacılık uygulamalarına ve Türkiye’deki limanların sorunlarına değinilmiştir. Türkiye’nin lojistik bir üs olma yolunda ilerlemesini sağlayacak ve kombine taşımacılığı destekleyecek olan lojistik köy kavramı, lojistik köyün konumuna etki eden faktörler ve lojistik köy faaliyetleri açıklanmış, Avrupa’daki başarılı lojistik köy örneklerinden yararlanılarak Türkiye’deki lojistik köyler incelenmiştir. Yedinci bölümde Türkiye’nin kombine taşımacılıktaki durumu değerlendirilmiş kuvvetli, zayıf yönler, fırsatlar ve tehditler belirtilmiştir. Türkiye’de yük taşımacılığında karşılaşılan sorunlardan yola çıkılarak, Türkiye’deki uygulamalar değerlendirilmiş ve yapılan tespitler sonucunda konu ile ilgili öneriler sunulmuştur. Sekizinci ve son bölümde ise Türkiye’de kombine taşımacılık konusunda yapılan tespitler tavsiye niteliğinde ele alınmıştır.
Transportation is an essential element of economic and social development. Transportation is a major factor in modern economies. Transport demand is increasing day by day. Increase in transport demand cannot be met only with the construction of new infrastructure and open markets. The transport system must be optimized in order to meet growth and sustainable development demands. A modern transport system must be economical, social, and environmental sustainability. Economy should be taken into consideration in the plans made for the transport sector. The impact of globalization on transportation, production and marketing as a result of advances in communications and technology by becoming international, rapid, safe and economic products delivery is getting important. Combined transportation has become more important after globalization.  Combined transport, which contribute to making an ideal of transport logistics, by using the advantageous aspects of the different transport modes. In this context, the intermodal or combined transport is considered a factor that promotes international trade all countries to prepare policies in this direction and create incentive mechanisms. In terms of technological and operational features, multimodal, intermodal or combined transport, the same load, from producers to consumers shipment or vice versa focuses on the use of two or more modes of transport due to economic reasons or physical-geographical conditions.  The combined transport concept is based on the seventeenth century. A French writer described that his horse-drawn carriage boarded on a barge and moved on Rhone River for 400 km, to avoid the rough road route. This can be an example of the primitive roll-on/roll-off (Ro-Ro) transport. Then, in 1830, horse-drawn carriage was carried on wagons. In addition to this, in the 1960s Ro-Ro transport has appeared in the Scandinavian countries in order to tourism. Before the First World War, road-rail-sea trimodal combined transport service between Paris and London was operated. The International Union of Combined Road-Rail Transport Companies is established on 23 October 1970 in Munich and then, in 1972 first international rolling road link was established between the cities of Cologne (Germany) and Verona (Italy). In 1987, Wabash National builds first RoadRailer trailer. Furthermore, combined transport become more preferable with the containerization. In 1792 boxes, which are resemble to the modern container, had been used for combined rail- and horse-drawn transport in England. Standardization of steel containers were developed in the 1950s by the US Armed Forces. In commercial maritime transportation in today's standard first move was made by American entrepreneur Malcolm McLean in 1956. The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) set standard sizes in 1961. Combined transport is organized by the Combined Transport Operator and under a contract called a Combined Transport Document, the load is delivered to the recipient's door on the door of the seller. Combined transport, is based on a single contract made with the combined transport operator and with this contract; gives for all process-related all responsibility to the operator. This property is the reason that combined transport the more preferred method than unimodal transport which require more than one contract at the delivery door-to-door transport. When considered in terms of marketing, many companies prefer combined transport which is environmentally friendly transportation alternative. Due to the fact that Turkey which is a bridge between Europe and Asia, surrounded by Marmara Sea, Black Sea and Mediterranean on three sides and on important transit corridor, our country has the potential to become a logistics center.  The thesis prepared for this purpose consists of eight parts. The first part is made introduction to the subject dealt with in the process of development of combined transport and the purpose of the thesis is stated. In the second chapter of the thesis, firstly, transport systems is described according to the type of carrier including road, rail, air, sea, inland waterway, pipeline transport. Then, type of transport modes involving unimodal, multimodal, intermodal, combined transport is explained. In the third part, the purpose of combined transport, the basic components of combined transport involving transport vehicles, transport terminals, transport units, and types of combined transport including container transport, piggyback transport, and bimodal transport is expressed. In the fourth chapter, transportation mode selection criteria are explained. Parameters affecting on the transportation mode selection is stated that the performance parameters (transport time, frequency, reliability, capacity limits), cost parameters, quality of service (loss injury rate and management, communication, customer distribution and transport planning, flexibility) and general parameters (company structure and organization, government intervention and existing transportation facilities). Then, road, rail, sea, air, inland waterway transport types of strengths and weaknesses has been examined by considering factors such as cost, speed, reliability, flexibility, security, capacity, fuel consumption, environment that are effective in determining the mode of transport. In the fifth part, combined transport policy in the European Union, the situation of the transport system, the Trans-European transport networks, the Pan-European transport corridors, European transport networks such as TRACECA and combined transport on the main international connections in Europe were investigated. Giving examples of successful combined transport in Europe, the effects of combined transport on CO² emissions and fuel consumption is stated. In the sixth chapter, the situation of the road transport, railway transport, maritime transport, and airline transport in Turkey is analyzed. After that, combined transport applications in Turkey including the railway container transportation, container transportation by sea, Ro-Ro and ferry transport, and the port’s problems in Turkey were mentioned. After that, the concept of freight villages is described. The first freight villages were established in France especially Garonor and Sogaris. This village has been responding to the urban logistics policy criteria. Towards the end of the 1960s and logistics villages in the 1970s, rail-road intermodal terminals with the concept has emerged in Italy and Germany. In the 1980s and 1990s, the number of logistics villages in France, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Belgium and England have increased. And also, freight villages will play an important role in the supporting combined transport and providing progress towards becoming a logistic center of Turkey. In addition to this, factors affecting the location of the freight villages and their activities were described, and freight villages in Turkey were analyzed by using the example of successful freight villages in Europe in this part. In the seventh chapter, the situation of combined transportation in Turkey according to strength, weaknesses, opportunities and threats were evaluated. Starting from the problems encountered in the freight transport in Turkey, applications in Turkey were evaluated. Recommendations about highway, railway, road transportation, Ro-Ro transportation, ports, and freight villages, examining the construction of the continued and planned projects were presented on the subject as a result of determinations made. The eighth and final section, The determinations about combined transport in Turkey, made are specified in the advisory.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Instıtute of Science and Technology, 2015
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/14029
Appears in Collections:İnşaat Mühendisliği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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