Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/13070
Title: Sürdürülebilirlik Kavramı  içerisinde Su Ayak İzi : Tekstil Sektörü Örneği
Other Titles: The Concept Of Sustainability In Water Footprint: The Case Of Textile Industry
Authors: Toröz, İsmail
Alper, Fırat
10063853
Çevre Bilimleri ve Mühendisliği
Environmental Science and Engineering
Keywords: Su Ayak İzi
Pamuk
Tekstil
Water Footprint
Cotton
Textile
Issue Date: 30-Jan-2015
Publisher: Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü
Institute of Science and Technology
Abstract: Su insan için hayati sıvı olmasına rağmen, önemi hala yeterince anlaşılamamış olup su denilince çok ucuz bir ticari mal akla gelmektedir. Hergün kullandığımız elektronik eşyaların, giysilerin, içtiğimiz içeceklerin bir akarsu havzasındaki suyun kullanılarak üretildiği, bu esnada da su kaynaklarının kirletildiği gerçeği genellikle gözardı edilmektedir. Gelecekte su, petrolden daha önemli olacaktır. Küresel ısınmanın artması ve kullanılabilir su kaynaklarının tüketilmesi, gelecekte su için savaşlara neden olacaktır. Ülkemizin su zengini olduğu sanılıyor. Oysaki, gelişen sanayi ve artan nüfusuyla Türkiye’nin 2030 yılında su bakımından sıkıntı çeken bir ülke olacağı tahmin edilmektedir. Türkiye’de en fazla su tarım sektöründe kullanılmaktadır. Tarım sektöründe kullanılan su oranı toplam su tüketimimizin %75’ine karşılık gelmektedir. Mevcut su kaynaklarını sürdürülebilir kullanımı çok önemlidir. Suyu sürdürülebilir kullanmanın ana koşulu; korumak ve iyi yönetmektir . Su ayak izi son zamanlarda popüler olmuş bir kavramdır. Sürdürülebilir su yönetimi açısından su ayak izi en önemli elementtir. Su ayak izi; mavi, yeşil ve gri su ayak izinin toplamıdır. Mavi su ayak izi, yüzey ve yeraltı sularıdır. Yeşil su ayak izi ise yağan yağmur miktarıdır. Gri su ayak izi ise kirletilen tatlı su miktarıdır. Su ayak izi hem üretim sürecinden dolaylı su kullanımını hem de doğrudan su kullanımını hesaba katar. Bir t-shirt üretmek için fabrikada 35-40 litre su harcanır. Aslında, tarladan üretime kadar bu t-shirt 2.700 litre su harcanıyor. İşte buna ‘‘sanal su’’denir. Tekstil sektöründe bazı işlemlerde baştan sonuna kadar yüksek hacimlerde su kullanılır; örneğin, ağartma, yapağı, durulama, boyama ve son ürünlerin yıkanması . Pamuk üretiminde sosyal, çevresel ve ekonomik sürdürülebilirlik uygulamaları hayata geçirilmelidir.   Bu çalışmada, Cropwat programı ile pamuk için Aydın, Adana, Antalya, Diyarbakır, İzmir ve Şanlıurfa illerimiz  için su ayak izleri hesaplanmıştır. Adana şehri mavi ve yeşil su ayak izleri toplamı 1631 m3/ton ile en az su tüketimine, 5.13 ton/ha ile en yüksek verime sahip şehirdir. Ayrıca ‘‘İyi Pamuk Uygulamaları’’ pamuk için tarlada su tüketimini azaltan bir uygulamadır. İyi Pamuk Uygulamaları ile pamuk üretiminde %23’e kadar su tasarrufu sağlanmaktadır. ‘‘Tekstil Sanayi için En Uygun Teknikler (BAT) Referans Dökümanı’’ ile prosesde su tüketimi azaltılmasına yönelik öneriler sunulmuştur.
Water is vital fluid for human. Unfortunately, not understanding the importance of water. İn our country, the water comes to mind is very cheap goods. The electronics we use every day, clothing, manufactured using the water in a river basin of beverages we drink, the fact that in the meantime the contamination of water resources is often overlooked. İn the future, water will be more valuable than oil. The increasing global warming and freshwater consumption refer that, world war will begin for water. Increased consumption due to the increase in population and water security in relation to global climate change, will be important issues for our country in the years ahead. Therefore, the country's economic planning and need to assess and predict the impact on water demand in a comprehensive way. In addition to improving the water resistance and to reduce the risk of water, minimize the global scale of the country economically advantageous position to bring social, should become the most important element of the economic and environmental sustainability of Turkey's water policies. İt is believed that our country is rich in water. However, with the increasing industrialization and growing population in Turkey is estimated to be suffering a country in terms of water in 2030. Most water is used in agriculture in Turkey. The proportion of water used in agriculture correspond to 75% of our total water consumption.  Production with the industrial revolution in human history, population and consumption growth is with great momentum, has increased the use of water as a result. Industrialization increased as a result of decreased water contaminated with water resources and limited quantities. Water resources are used effectively and is wasted. Many countries that have water in 1975 and today only half of which have been determined in the near future water needs to be doubled. Most of amount of water is used as a coolant in the metal sector in most industries. textile industry constitutes 7.6%. 24.6% of the water obtained from wells and 12.4% of the water supplied from the mains is used in textiles. 25.7% of the water consumed in the art are used as process water. The textile sector has a 23.4% slice of process water consumed,  almost one in four. Sustainable use of existing water resources is very important. The main condition for sustainable use of water; protect and manage the best. In Turkey, industrial re-use rate is 34% water, 26% in the paper industry, 2% of the food, while 47% in the metal industry is unfortunately carried out in only 1% of Textiles. Moreover, the high water consumption in the textile industry is the use of process water. Textile, before a large portion of the groundwater resources of the water used in the process then the quality of the lake according to these sources are insufficient, is taken from streams and rivers. Water footprint recently become a popular. Water footprint for sustainable water management is the most important element. An individual water footprint of society or industry; Manufacturers used for the production of goods or consumed by an individual or population used for the production of goods and services is the amount of total fresh water resources. Briefly water footprint; consumed per unit time (including evaporation) and / or the amount of polluted water. Blue, Green and gray water footprint; water footprint representing the water quality and the use of three main elements. The water footprint is total of the blue, green and gray water footprint. The blue water footprint is the total volume of groundwater (aquifer) and surface freshwater (river, lake) resources needed to produce a product. The green water footprint is the total rain water used to produce a product (goods). However, it does not interfere with groundwater or rainwater is not lost. Temporarily it is stored above ground, in the soil or vegetation. Rainfall for assessing the green water needs of a region that directly affect the demand for green water, and climate variability and change should be considered. Grey Water Footprint indicates pollution. According to the existing water quality standards, the gray water footprint; pollution fresh water is used for the reduction or removal of the load. Water footprint calculate, both of the direct and indirect water use from the production. It took longer than the development of the calculation of the water footprint concept revealed in 2002 because the government and companies focused on carbon. Water footprint calculations are based on a common idea based on carbon 5 years behind, but is progressing rapidly. Summaries sustainable water management is the most important building block in opening water footprint. The textile sector is one of the most water-consuming industries. Cotton water footprint in the world's total water footprint accounts for 3.14%. Consumed an average of 11,000 liters of water to produce 1 kg of cotton fabric, geographical location affect these values. Cotton water footprint is 6000 L in China, 8100 L in United States, 22.500 L in  India, 9600 L in Pakistan and 9200 L in Uzbekistan. From industrial plants that grow in our country, Cotton has the highest water footprint. Cotton of water footprint is known that blue water footprint 84%. So the groundwater and surface water resources in the production of cotton is clear once again that the most important factor. Water is heavily used in the processing of cotton textiles. Process of cotton, almost 60% of the total water used to produce and distribute the final product, in this supply chain 'processing' is consumed in parts. Therefore, Turkey continues processing as long as the amount of water used by the textile industry will continue to increase. In addition, waste water disposal occurs after processing of cotton, in other words, a significant impact as gray water footprint will be in front of us. One t-shirt are produced 35-40 liters water in the factory. Actually, from farm to manufacture spent 2.700 liters of water. This is called ‘‘virtual water’’. Use in Turkey and falling water consumption is 216 liters per person per day for drinking purposes. Virtual water is understood that in accordance with the approach taken into account when the water footprint of an individual directly or indirectly in Turkey, the daily water consumption is 5,416 liters. This shows the amount of water consumed through direct consumption of goods and services as well as indirectly.  In some processes large volumes of water used in the textile industry from the beginning to the end. Such as; bleaching, wool, rinse, dyeing and wasting of the final product. Cotton production in the social environmental and economic sustainability practices should be implement. In this thesis, water footprint is calculated with Cropwat programme for Aydın, Adana, Antalya, Diyarbakır, İzmir and Şanlıurfa. Adana total of blue and green water footprint is 1.631 m3/tonnes this city is minumum water consumption and 5.13 ton/ha is the highest yield the another cities. In addition ‘‘Better Cotton Initiative’’is an application that reduces the water consumption in the field. Better cotton production , 'Better Cotton’ is expanding sustainable commercial products is aimed at transforming the cotton production worldwide. Better Cotton production purpose; To minimize the negative environmental impacts created by the cotton production, Better Cotton's sustainability and ensure reliability, Economy and livelihood improvement in the cotton-producing regions and At all stages of the supply chain to improve the Better Cotton's flow. Cotton production with ‘‘Better Cotton’’, water saving are achieved up to 14-23%. In addition, 9% less pesticide use, 18% less synthetic pesticides are used. Besides, it is observed that 2% compared to other cotton producing farmers obtain more profits. ‘‘Best Available Techniques for the Textile Industry (BAT) Reference Document’’ is presented with suggestion for reducing water consumption. Further enhanced in the process of example plants, 54% in Özer textile water was provided to 22% energy savings. 30% of chemicals in textiles, was provided to 50% of natural gas consumption in Emre textile. Previously with 150 liters of water 1 kg of fabric dyeing, work has started on 1 kilogram of fabric dyeing machine with 40 liters of water with renewed and was provided to 70% water savings.
Description: Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Instıtute of Science and Technology, 2015
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11527/13070
Appears in Collections:Çevre Bilimleri ve Mühendisliği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans

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