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|Title:||Diatomit, Sepiyolit Ve Mikalı Kum'un Kuru Zenginleştirilmesi|
|Other Titles:||Dry Enrichment Of Diatomite, Sepiolite And Sand|
|Authors:||Sirkeci, Ayhan Ali|
Cevher Hazırlama Mühendisliği
Mineral Processing Engineering
|Publisher:||Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü|
Institute of Science and Technology
|Abstract:||Yüksek lisans bitirme tezimde farklı özelliklere sahip endüstriyel kullanımı olan Türkiye’de ve Dünyanın farklı ülkelerinde yüksek hacimde üretim imkanı olan diatomit, sepiyolit ve mikalı kum’un kuru zenginleştirilmesi üzerinde çalışılmıştır. Yaşanan ekonomik gelişimlerle talebi her geçen gün artan sepiyolit, diatomit ve kum, endüstride genellikle kuru tercih edilmektedir. Yapılan kuru zenginleştirme ile istenen ürünün elde edilmesi ve eş şartlarda (fan hava miktarı, seperatör hızı, besleme hızı) ürünlerin boyut, şekil ve özgül ağırlık farklarına göre ayrımlaşması gözlemlenmiştir. Çıkan numunelerin kimyasal ve boyut analizleri yapılmıştır. Deneyler, İTÜ cevher hazırlama pilot tesisi içinde bulunan havalı seperatör ile yapılmıştır. Sepiyolit ve diatomit içi numune -0,5 mm altına öğütülmüş olup, endüstride genellikle -1+0,3 mm olarak istenen kum numunesi için ise havalı seperatörün kullanım şartları gereği -0,5 +0,3 mm aralıklarında elenmiş numune kullanılmıştır. Havalı seperatörden, iri malzeme ve ince ürün numuneler alınmış, ürün içerikleri ve boyut analizleri, kimyasal ve elek anlizleri ile belirlenmiştir. Deneylerde havalı seperatörün fan hava miktarı ve seperatör hızları ile optimum ayırma şartları belirlenmeye çalışılmıştır. Sepiyolit ve diatomit için hava miktarları 179 , 207 ve 252 m3/saat kullanılmış, mikalı kum’un farklı özellikleri sebebi ile daha iyi bir ayrıma yapabilmek için, hava miktarı 297 m3/saat kullanılmıştır. Aynı şekilde diatomit ve sepiyolit’te seperatör hızları 1153,1349 ve 1438 rpm alınırken mikalı kum için seperatörde 344,549 ve 743 rpm hızları denenmiştir. Ürünü besleme hızı olarak diatomit ve sepiyolitte 500 gr/dk, mikalı kumda ise 600 gr/dk besleme hızları denenmiştir. Yapılan deneyler sonunda çıkan sepiyolit ve diatomit numuneleri için boyut dağılımları ile d50 ve d90 değerleri belirlenmiş ve toplam elek altı garfikleri her bir deney için çizilmiştir. Diatomit için yapılan kimyasal analizlerde ürünlerin Fe2O3, Al2O3, SiO2,MgO ve CaO değerlerine bakılmıştır. Sepiyolit için ise havalı seperatörden çıkan numuneler üzerinde centipoise biriminden vizkozite ve meq/100 gr biriminde Katyon Değiştirme Kapasiteleri (KDK) bulunmuştur. Mikalı kum için yapılan havalı seperasyon sonucu elde edilen numuneler, trinokuler mikroskop ile incelenmiş, mika, kuvars+feldspat ve diger ürünlerin yüzdeleri belirlenmiştir. Deneylerde Denizli Sarayköy Tırkaz köyü bölgesi diatomit, Trakya Çatalca Binkılıç bölgesi kum ve Eskişehir bölgesi sepiyolit numuneleri kullanılmıştır|
My master’s graduate thesis, was studied on dry enrichment of Diatomite, Sepiolite and micaceous Sand which have different characteristics of industrial use and also which has production facilities with multiple units in different countries of the world and in Turkey With each passing day, increase in the demand of sepiolite, diatomite and sand is preffered generally dry. With dry concentrating to obtain the desired product and charge conditions (air quantity, separator speed, feed rate) of the product size, shape and differentiation was observed according to differences in specific gravity. The chemical and size analysis of the resulting samples were made. The experiments were performed with air separator in the mineral processing pilot plant of İTÜ. The sepiolite and diatomite samples were to be ground below -0.5 mm. In the industry usually -1 +0.3 mm micaceous sand sample for the desired use of the air separator as per the requirements of the diluted sample was used to -0.5 +0.3 mm range. From the air separator, coarse material and slim product samples were taken, and the product content and size of product analysis, was determined with chemical and sieve analysis. In the experiments, air separator of air quantity and with the separator speed the optimum seperation conditions have tried to be determined. For the sepiolite and diatomite, the amount of air 179, 207 and 252 m3/hr used, due to the different characteristics of micaceous sand to make a better distinction amount of air 297 m3/hr. has been used. In the same way, diatomite and sepiolite separator speed 1153, 1349 and 1438 rpm were used, and for micaceous sand in the separator, 344, 549 and 743 rpm speed were tested. To feed the products speed rate, for diatomite and sepiolite 500 g/min, and for the micaceous sand 600 g / min were tested. At the end of the experiments, for the samples of sepiolite and diatomite, with size distribution the d50 and d90 values determined and total sieve undersize was graphed for each experiment. Chemical analysis for the diatomite products, Fe2O3, Al2O3, SiO2, MgO, CaO values were measured. For the sepiolite, over the samples which has occured from air separator, viscosity and meq/100g of Cationic Exchange Capacity was found from the centipoise unit. For the micaceous sands, the samples which was obtained by air separation. Examined with the binocular microscope and mica, quartz + feldspar and other percent of the products were determined. In the experiments, Denizli Saraykoy Tırkaz village region diatomite, Trakya Çataca Binkilic region sand and Eskisehir region sepiolite samples were used. As a result of the experiments, the administrative use in more animal feed additives, cat litter, oil industry sepiolite used as an additive in the mud, the CEC values are expected to be between 10-20 meq/100gr. Generally, the higher CEC values are defined as higher quality sepiolite. Also high viscosity sepiolites are preferred in the petroleum industry. Therefore, in the experiments conducted with sepiolite different fan speed of the air amount and the size distribution of coarse and slim products obtained in the separator speed, the products with high CEC values and CEC value were investigated. Increasing the amount of fan air for sepiolite size distribution d90 and d50 of coarse mesh sizes of samples falling (e.g. for 179,207,252 m3/hour fan air amount d90 value was measured 203,179,177). Thin samples do not vary (e.g., for 179,207,252 fan air amount d90 value was measured 59,53,62).In the separator speed changes, d90 value remains the same for 1153, 1438 rpm, but increases at 1,438 rpm (e.g. such as air speed velocity 252 and separator speeds 1153, 1349 and 1438 rpm and for 1438 rpm d90 values has changed as 177, 171 and 267). Thin samples did not change. Because of the height of CEC values for sepiolite is a desirable feature, for each sieve analysis CEC values were measured (Table 9,7). In the experiments, high CEC values have been reached at thin samples, for these samples, the highest values were achieved as seen in (Table 9.7) F179/S1153, F207/S1153, F207/S1349 and the low CEC values F252/S1438 and for the tüvenan sample viscosity measurements experiments were made. The viscosity experiments were performed for both thin and large samples with high CEC values. Especially, for the product which is desired high viscosity used in the oil industry, for the large sample of viscosity at hand, with fan air flow rate 207 m3/hr and separator speed 1349 rpm was has been the highest.viscosity (88cp). As a result, it is possible to use the products of which the distinction is made by the air separator. While, the highest CEC is preffered for cat litter, for the oil mud additives the highest product viscosity may be preferred. In the industrial sense, the high proportion (84-90%) SiO2 of diatomite products are preferred. Although not very significant differences are seen in the analysis, which is the highest rate of SiO2 experiments, the amount of fan air 207 m3/hr and the slim product experiment of which seperator speed is 1438 rpm. The experiment of which fan air quantity of 179 m3 and separator speed 1153 rpm and also in which the slim sample is used is very close to the best value. In the experiments, for the diatomite desirable is far from industrial use (desirable SiO2 84% and above, in experiments maximum SiO2 45%) of a product emerged, where in 18 different samples for chemical analysis (Table 9.13) of the desirableSiO2 rate has no significant change (highest 44.9% SiO2 and fan air quantity of 207 m3 per hour, separator speed 1438 rpm thin sample and lowest amount with 38.99% SiO2 thin specimens and the fan air amount 252m3/hr seperator speed 1349 rpm large sample) In the experiments, samples of thin samples’ SiO2 ratio varies in the range of 1-5% compared to the large samples, but this is not a sufficient distinction. Experiments with diatomite was not observed significant variations in the enrichment method and there has not been an improvement in the ratio of SiO2. Analysis results for sand was examined from mica side. Maximum 3% mica in the construction industry is required. In the tüvenan sample, size in the range -0.5 +0.3 mm 5% mica, with the air separator tests four times could be reduced to 2%. 297 m3/hour and 549 rpm for the fan air quantity obtained in experiments 97% quartz, most significant results have been obtained. The lowest mica content obtained in this assay variation, higher sand loss (22%), respectively. Highest sand recovery (96%) is provided with the amount of fan air of 297 m3 and is provided at a rate of 743 rpm separator speed. Mica rate is realized as 4.3%, but this rate is over the desired rate of 3%. As a result of the increasing rate of separation speed, constant amount of air in the fan have prevented the loss of sand, although the rate of mica has increased. The optimum ratio of the fan air volume of 297 m3 and the experiments which is made by 549 rpm. Here mica rate of 2.6% was lower than the expected 3% rate, within the limits of sand loss was 9%. At the request of the construction sector increasing day by day in order to meet the needs of mid specially qualified sand needs, where aqueous method is not possible to dry separator is believed that the removal of mica.
|Description:||Tez (Yüksek Lisans) -- İstanbul Teknik Üniversitesi, Fen Bilimleri Enstitüsü, 2015|
Thesis (M.Sc.) -- İstanbul Technical University, Instıtute of Science and Technology, 2015
|Appears in Collections:||Cevher Hazırlama Mühendisliği Lisansüstü Programı - Yüksek Lisans|
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